Write4U There is no question. Time is, events may be(or may not be, either way the time still exists). They really have nothing to do with each other's existence, but there is influence between them. No, it isn't. Spacetime is what our Universe consists of. Energy, matter, events or speed are things which occur within spacetime. Math is a construct, as is the measurements we make of time dependent processes. The Universe existed before we invented the math to describe it, as time existed before we made our first clocks to measure it with. Is the measurement of a board that board itself? Can you build a house out of those measurements(not boards, just the measurements)? Or do you describe the boards with the measurement and build the house out of the actual boards? The same situation pertains to time. There can be no events without already existent time and space in which to occur. No time/space, no events, not the other way around. Time could not care less if you can or do assign it a value. In fact time exists whether you even can do any experiment at all. The only time you are assigning a value to is the time the experiment took, not the existence of time everywhere. You're still having a problem in thinking that the map you made creates the territory, that you think the territory doesn't exist until you draw a map of it and/or that the map IS the territory, none of which are true. True. And the past no longer exists, though you can see some of it in a telescope. There is actually only the now, and that now is travelling in a dimension of time every bit as real as any spacial dimension. In fact, you(or any other observer)can not NOT travel in the time dimension. Like lightspeed, each observer sees his own time as invariant, it always ticks at the same rate, it is only between frames that time dilation is seen. Even in a frame travelling at .99c time passes for the passengers at exactly the same rate, it is only when they look out the window that effects are seen. Time is different from the three spacial dimensions in that we(and the whole Universe)can only travel in time in one direction. That is because entropy is a downhill slope, the Universe started at or very, very close to zero entropy and it only increases over time(in general and on average, there can be local decreases at the expense of other areas increasing and in the Quantum it appears short hops to the past are possible), the direction it increases in is toward the future. You cannot unfry an egg. Personally, I think the inside of a BH is the only place travel to the past is possible, that each short circuits directly to the Big Bang(the only White Hole we have found)through a wormhole, but that's just speculation. The Universe does not require us to "speak about it" to exist. A spacetime event is a description, you're still talking about the map, not the territory. Your "creation of a time frame" is only a description of a certain section of a continuous stream of flowing time, not a description of that flowing time. And your measurement did not create the thing being measured(a certain portion of the whole time the Universe has experienced), it just describes which particular section or duration you're speaking of. Yes, you must specify a point in space and time to describe a spacetime event, but you describing it has nothing to do with it's existence, I don't know where that came from. Again, time exists, whether or not there are events by which we can measure it's passage, it is as important and fundamental as space. That's why Einstein called it spacetime, it is the stage on which all events occur, it is there even when the lights are out and the stage empty. "In their paper, Sorli and Fiscaletti argue that, while the concepts of special relativity are sound, the introduction of 4D Minkowski spacetime has created a century-long misunderstanding of time as the fourth dimension of space that lacks any experimental support. " That is just wrong. Not only has every prediction of Relativity been experimentally confirmed(including length contraction and not directly yet with gravity waves)but it describes the real behavior of the Universe to a very high degree. So their conclusion... "In this view, space and time are two separate entities." Is wrong as well, "clocks run slower at high speeds due to the nature of Minkowski spacetime itself as a result of both time dilation and length contraction." As confirmed in every accelerator on Earth and every Cosmic Ray hitting the upper atmosphere. Even the length contraction of protons near lightspeed has been confirmed. They are just wrong. GrumpyPlease Register or Log in to view the hidden image!