#### Henok Tadesse

**Registered Member**

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*Absolute/Relative Motion and the Speed of Light, Electromagnetism, Inertia and Universal Speed Limit c - an Alternative Interpretation and Theoretical Framework*"

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*A New Theoretical Framework of Absolute and Relative Motion, the Speed of Light, Electromagnetism and Gravity*"

*" New Interpretation and Analysis of Michelson-Morley Experiment, Sagnac Effect, and Stellar Aberration by Apparent Source Theory "*

__Einstein's "chasing a beam of light" thought experiment__Einstein correctly discovered his beautiful "chasing a beam of light" thought experiment, but gave it a wrong interpretation, i.e. the relativity of length and time. The new interpretation of constancy of light speed is as follows:

The

*velocity of light is always constant relative to the observer , irrespective of source or observer velocity, for uniform or accelerated motion. The*

__phase__*velocity of light behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source velocity, but varies with observer velocity. Einstein failed to make this distinction and this led to the special theory of relativity.*

__group__The constancy of the

*phase*velocity of light is a direct consequence of the non-existence of the ether. Physicists were led astray when they tried to 'explain' the constancy of the velocity of light, by proposing the relativity of length and relativity of simultaneity. The phenomenon of constancy of the (phase) velocity of light is to be just accepted because it does not have any explanation for the same reason that there is no explanation for light being a wave when there is no medium for its transmission. Physicists naturally sought to 'explain' the constancy of the speed of light because their thinking was always implicitly based on the ether. Einstein did not truly succeed in eliminating the ether, and Einstein himself never realized this. Few, if any, physicists realize this. The ether always haunted the thinking of the physicists.

Imagine a stationary light source emitting a light pulse and an observer moving directly away from the source at (or near ) the speed of light. The new interpretation of Einstein's thought experiment is that the group will be 'frozen' but the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light

*c*, relative to the observer.

For the phase velocity of light to be constant not only the frequency but also, unconventionally, the wavelength must change for a moving observer.

*f λ = f ' λ ' = c*

The change of wavelength for a moving observer is a unique, unconventional nature of light. This makes light distinct from classical waves, such as sound waves.

This should raise a question: then what is the Doppler effect law governing light that can satisfy the above condition ? The classical Doppler effect law obviously fails to satisfy this condition.

__Exponential Doppler Effect law of light__Searching for a function that can satisfy the above condition, I found a new mysterious formula governing the Doppler effect of light.

*f ' = f e V/c and λ ' = λ e -V/c ,*where

*e*is Euler's constant

Now

*f ' λ ' = f e V/c λ e -V/c = f λ = c*

satisfying the constant phase velocity. No conventional formulas containing terms like c ± V can satisfy this condition.

Profoundly, the above formula not only satisfies the constant phase velocity condition, it can also explain the Ives-Stillwell experiment ! By applying Taylor expansion to the exponential function, we get exactly the same result as predicted by special relativity: Δλ = ½ β2λ

The derivation can be found in my paper at Vixra:

*" Exponential Law of Doppler Effect of Light – an Explanation of Ives-Stilwell Experiment "*

Moreover, the new formula is defined for all values of velocity V: 0 ≤ V ≤ ∞ , whereas the relativistic formula (and classical formulas) become undefined for V ≥ c . Therefore, the existence of superluminal velocities (as already observed) by itself disproves the relativistic and classical formulas, implying the need for a new law of Doppler effect of light.

__The Michelson- Morley experiment__

__Apparent Source Theory__Now we will see the trick of nature that has eluded physicists for centuries.

Consider the Michelson-Morley experiment shown below.

( Fig 2 )

Apparent Source Theory is formulated as follows.

*The effect of absolute motion for co-moving light source and observer/detector is to create an apparent change in position ( distance and direction ) of the source relative to ( as seen by ) the observer/detector. The apparent change in position of the light source is determined by the source-observer direct distance and the magnitude and direction of absolute velocity.*

The easiest way to understand Apparent Source Theory is to ask a simple question: what is the effect of actually/physically changing the light source position of the Michelson-Morley interferometer (instead of setting it in absolute motion) on the interference fringes ? For example, what is the effect of actually moving the light source slightly backwards (to the left), as shown above, on the interference fringes ? Obviously, there will not be any fringe shift because, intuitively, both the longitudinal and transverse light beams will be affected ( delayed ) identically. There will not be any fringe shift also if the source is slightly moved forward (to the right ) because both light beams will be advanced equally. There will be a small fringe shift for other positions of the source, for example if the source is moved upwards or downwards.

The new interpretation is that an apparent change of source position (caused by absolute motion ) will not create any significant fringe shift ( no fringe shift or a small fringe shift ) for the same reason that an actual/physical change of source position will not create any significant fringe shift. This explains the 'null' result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. This is the subtle nature of light that completely eluded physicists for centuries.

The procedure of analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment is :

1. Replace the real source by an apparent source

2. Analyze the experiment by assuming that light is emitted from the apparent source position, not from the real source position.

The real source is replaced by an apparent source in order to account for absolute velocity. Once this is done, the experiment is analyzed by assuming that light is emitted from the apparent source and by using elementary geometrical optics. Once we replace the real source with an apparent source, we can assume emission theory, i.e. the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source.

Apparent Source Theory can be seen as a seamless fusion of ether theory and emission theory.

__Relation between constancy of phase velocity and Apparent Source Theory__The constancy of the phase velocity of light ( and Exponential Doppler Effect theory ) governs the wavelength, frequency and phase velocity of light. Apparent Source Theory governs the phase delay and group delay of light.