Sylwester's 'Everlasting theory'

Below is the link to my new paper (3 pages)

The Internal Structure of Baryons as a Source of the Higgs Boson and the Heister Vector Boson with a Mass of 30 GeV

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), especially within the atom-like structure of baryons, we described a method that leads to groups of particles each composed of 4 particles. Such groups consist of the following particles: a quantum of the electromagnetic field, a vector boson, and two high-mass narrow composite resonances with low standard deviation both with J = 0 and J = 2.

Here we show that the Heister vector boson with a mass of 30.4 +- 1.78 GeV is the constituent of such a group.

Here as well we reasoned out why the Higgs-boson signal is relatively strong in comparison with other high-mass scalar bosons - just there are two, not one, independent phenomena that lead to the mass of Higgs boson equal to 125.0 GeV.
Below is the link to my new paper (3 pages)

Two More the Type QVRs Groups

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described a method that leads to the groups containing a quantum, vector boson, and two high-mass narrow composite resonances with low standard deviation both with J = 0 and J = 2 (the Type QVRs groups).

Previously we described four such groups whereas in this paper we present two more such groups.

Among the SST 12 resonances, there are three resonances with masses close to the mass of resonance with a higher width that appears in the LHC data (its mass is about 2.250 TeV). Their masses are 1.951 TeV, 2.242 TeV, and 2.566 TeV - the arithmetic mean of expected values is 2.253 TeV but signal should be broadened more than for the other narrow resonances. Moreover, 4 other resonances appear in the combined LHC data. We predict existence of 5 other resonances - masses of 3 of them are higher than the present-day range of the LHC experiments whereas 2 of them overlap with the bump around about 190 - 300 GeV. But the most important task is to search for the predicted vector bosons - two of the 6 vector bosons that appear in the six SST QVRs groups are the W and Z bosons whereas the predicted 4 vector bosons should have following masses 25.4 GeV, 30.5 GeV (it is the Heister vector boson), 40.1 GeV, and 280.2 GeV.
Below is the link to my new paper (2 pages)

General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics as the Theories Dependent on the Observer/Detector

General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) are the theories dependent on the observer/detector so they are not the theories of the independent from observer Nature. In GR it follows from the fact that each act of observation (the photon-detector interaction via exchanges of the invisible superluminal particles responsible for quantum entanglement i.e. there are exchanged the spin-1 entanglons) sets the speed of light in “vacuum” c in relation to the detector (the speed c is in relation to the emitter or a last-interaction object - sometimes it is a detector). In QM it results from the fact that we cannot observe the entanglons directly and because time of observation lasts much longer than the time of exchanges of the invisible superluminal entanglons so there appear wavefunctions, superposition of states, and probabilities to find a particle in different states.

Simultaneity of different states of the same particle is an illusion that appears only in the theories dependent on the observer.

There must be in existence a more fundamental theory, which should be a theory of Nature independent on the observer - it is the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST leads to the initial conditions applied in GR and QM and shows that these theories are dependent on the observer. Moreover, SST shows that we cannot unify GR and QM within the same methods.

SST shows that Nature behaves classically in a deterministic way but it does not mean that the free will is not in existence.


Below is the link to my new paper (3 pages)

Cosmic-Ray Showers and Muon Problem

The Pierre Auger Observatory has detected more muons from cosmic-ray showers (about 30% to 60% for centre-of-mass energies 110 TeV to 170 TeV) than predicted within the LHC models for the centre-of-mass energies about 10 times lower (i.e. below 13 TeV). It suggests that at the energies beyond LHC, there can dominate a phenomenon that is neglected at the LHC energies.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the observed excess of muons concerns energies above the threshold energy about 18 TeV for the nucleons. At such energies, in proton-proton collisions, production of the spin-1 proton-antiproton pairs or narrow resonances dominates. This leads to the 50% positive excess of muons in comparison with the LHC-models prediction that should be observed in the cosmic-ray showers. It is consistent with the Auger data.


Here are described the main sins of scientific community

Below is the link to my new paper (3 pages)

Dark-Matter Structures: Mass, Sizes and Detection

Dark-matter (DM) structures are built of the entangled (it is the superluminal quantum entanglement) Einstein-spacetime components moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c (they are the non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs).

The big DM structures, i.e. the DM halos and DM filaments, are built of the DM circles with invariant mass about 47 powers of ten lower than 1 kg and very different sizes and angular momentums. Of course, two DM circles with antiparallel angular momentums can create a spin-0 structure that looks similar to the Scale-Symmetric-Theory (SST) pion or very early Universe - mass of such DM pion is two times higher than a single DM circle. But observed behaviour of DM structures suggests that most numerous are the DM circles.

Lower limit for their radius is about 13 powers of ten smaller than 1 m whereas upper limit can be arbitrary and is defined by distribution of baryonic matter (BM) with which the DM circles interact via leptons. The DM circles were produced at the beginning of expansion of the Universe. There, for example, are in existence the cosmological DM rulers/loops with a radius of 151 Mpc.

Quantum entanglement is much stronger than the DM-BM interactions so even during collisions of galaxies, the DM circles cannot be destroyed (they can be separated from baryonic matter and they can change size).

Since the Einstein-spacetime components in the DM circles/pions do not rotate and their speed is invariant whereas mass of the DM circles is very small, even indirect detection of DM structures is not an easy task.
Below is the link to my new paper (3 pages)

The Differences between the Bright Matter, Dark Matter, a Virtual Energy, Energy and Dark Energy

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), there is the two-component spacetime composed of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field and the gravitating Einstein spacetime (ES) composed of the very stable non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs (NAPs) moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c. NAPs in ES do not rotate.

The main feature of the bright matter (BM) is that it contains parts with mean distances between the NAPs smaller than the mean distance between the ES components because of the short-distance quantum entanglement or confinement - BM is not a part of ES.

The main feature of the dark matter (DM) is that mean distances between the NAPs are equal or greater than the mean distance between the ES components because of the long-distance entanglement - DM is not a part of ES and NAPs do not rotate.

Virtual energy (VE) appears due to creation of the virtual pairs (it has positive mass) from the local ES components so there appears as well a local virtual hole in ES (it has negative mass). Mean mass of such virtual structure is equal to zero. But due to the annihilations of the virtual pairs to real photons (they are the rotational energies of the ES components) that escape from surrounding of a real particle (BM), virtual processes decrease density of the ES. Virtual pairs, virtual holes and real photons (real photons carry real energy (E)), are not parts of ES. Interactions of virtual particles create BM that is the anomalous mass of a real bare particle.

A decay of real object (BM) to DM (it happened about 100 million years before the beginning of the expansion of the Universe) causes that virtual processes disappear. Since mass density of the ES around the object was negative so there is an inflow of ES into the region with lowered density of ES. The inflowing ES is the dark energy (DE). DE is needed to accelerate expansion of the Universe at the beginning and next to maintain a constant expansion rate. DE is a part of ES.
Below is the link to my new paper (3 pages)

Will It Be Possible to Copy Minds?

It is assumed that mind copying is the process of scanning mental state of a brain substrate and copying it to a computational device i.e. it is assumed that mind is a state of some brain components.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that mind is an independent structure that can act with brain via leptons because of advection. SST shows that there are two different states of groups of the entangled non-rotating-spin-1 Einstein-spacetime (ES) components (they are the very stable neutrino-antineutrino pairs): the spins can be perpendicular to a surface defined by the ES components (such configuration is characteristic for tori that we can find in fermions) or the spins can be aligned in circles (such configuration is characteristic for the dark-matter (DM) circles). The DM solitons are the sets of the entangled DM circles. According to SST, minds are collections of the interacting DM solitons produced due to the brain activity. New DM solitons can be produced only due to the brain-mind interactions.

Here we consider the conditions that have to be met to allow copying of the minds composed of the dark-matter structures.


Long-gang Pang, et al. (13 May 2016),

arXiv:1605.04024v1 [hep-ph] ,

deciphered in their simulation the nuclear-plasma structure that is consistent with the description of nuclear plasma within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST).

The simulation shows that there is local rotation that is twisted in a corkscrew-like fashion. In SST, such rotation is characteristic for bare fermions.

Simulation shows as well that there appear pairs of vortices – it also is consistent with the SST description of nuclear plasma.

Simulation shows that such plasma behaves as a liquid, not gas – it is consistent with SST also.

SST plasma: see
Below is the link to my new paper (4 pages)

Dirac Large-Numbers Hypothesis in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Contrary to the mainstream theories, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the dimensionless physical-constants/numbers are calculated. Here we show that two large physical-constants/numbers are very important.

First of the two large numbers relates ratio of the fine-structure constant and the coupling constant of gravitational interaction of the components of the electron-positron pairs to ratio of densities of the gravitating Einstein spacetime and the non-gravitating Higgs field (HF) which has inertial mass only - it is some 42 powers of ten.

The second one relates the mass/size cosmological scales and proton scales - it is some 40 powers of ten. SST shows that since the end of the inflation the gravitational constant is invariant.

Gravity and quantum entanglement emerged during the inflation as a result of phase transitions of large part of the Higgs field. Due to the properties of the quantum entanglement, controlling or removing quantum decoherence is impossible.

SST shows that we cannot explain correctly both gravity and quantum entanglement neglecting the two size scales below the Planck scale i.e. the HF scale and the quantum-entanglement scale.




Author tries to answer following question: Why Feynman diagrams can lead physicists astray?

Francis Brown said:
“We know for a fact that at some point it (i.e. QED) begins to diverge from real-world physics. What’s not known is how to estimate at what point one should stop calculating the diagrams.”

In my opinion, there is no physical reason to postulate the existence of such a point. Just SST shows that QED does not act properly because it is the incomplete theory and at least partially incorrect. SST shows that structure of bare fermions is very rich whereas in QED it is assumed that bare fermions are sizeless. The SST QED is very simple without infinities and singularities because of the internal structure of bare fermions.
Below is the link to my new paper (5 pages)

The Main Absurd Ideas That Destroy Theoretical Physics

I assume that the readers of this article have read the Wikipedia article entitled “Aether theories”: .

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we derived the speed of light in “vacuum” c and speed of quantum entanglement from the beginning (ab initio). The derivation shows that the mainstream interpretation of the invariant c is incomplete and that the Michelson-Morley experiment cannot be considered to be the first strong evidence against the aether theory.

We still cannot calculate the half-integral spin of proton within the 3-valence-quarks model - it is the “proton spin crisis”. Experiments suggest that the total proton spin carried by quarks can be consistent with almost zero. Is the quark model of proton partially incorrect? Here we show the origin of the spin asymmetry in deep inelastic muon-proton scattering that leads to the proton spin crisis. SST shows that inside baryons there are produced the quark-antiquark pairs but there are not single valence quarks because contrary to the electric charges of proton and electron, the electric charges of quarks are highly unstable. SST shows that spin of proton is carried by orbital angular momentums of the carriers of gluons.

The third main absurd idea is that pure/massless energy (for example vibrations) can propagate without some aether composed of physical/non-zero-volume particles. In reality, elementary energies are carried by the components of the Planck scale and by the components of the two scales below it.
Below is the link to my new paper (5 pages)

The Photon Mass Problem

It is obvious that physical vibrations/rotations/translations cannot be separated from a physical volume i.e. from at least an inertial mass or from the Principle-of-Equivalence (PoE) matter. It should concern the photons and gluons as well. On the other hand, it is argued that a mass of photon causes that its speed is lower than the speed of light in “vacuum” c and depends on its frequency, causes that the Coulomb law is modified, that gauge invariance and charge conservation are not valid, and so on.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the listed above arguments against a massive photon are unfounded. The PoE mass of the present-day photons calculated within SST is about 27 orders of magnitude lower than the rest mass of electron and is invariant (the c is the natural speed of the massive photons in spacetime and is invariant as well) so this result is below the upper limit for photon mass that results from experimental data.

We show also that relativistic mass is a real physical quantity, not an artefact/unreal-thing. SST shows that the inner momentum associated with spin and the spin itself, not the rest mass, are the invariants for all frames of reference assuming the special relativity case of flat spacetime (SST shows that contrary to the gravitational fields associated with the non-gravitating Higgs field, the Einstein spacetime associated with the PoE matter is indeed flat and dominates over the Higgs field). It leads to conclusion that the energy-momentum relation is still valid but it fails when we consider the structural changes in the bare fermions dependent on their speed.


Why for decades we are still not able to solve dozens of basic problems in physics and cosmology using this very fruitful mainstream scheme: “write an equation and find a solution”? It follows from the fact that such method fails when we simultaneously must take into account the all mass/size scales that appeared during the inflation because of the succeeding phase transitions of the initial inflation field. Sometimes to solve a basic problem, we must consider a cascade of very different phenomena containing simultaneously the superluminal interactions such as gravity or quantum entanglement or confinement, containing the three Standard-Model interactions, and containing the subluminal velocities of the Principle-of-Equivalence matter. Such a cascade contains also simultaneously the curved gravitational and nuclear-strong fields and other fields and the flat Standard-Model spacetime. Such a very complex basic problems cannot be solved via the mainstream scheme - we must apply the cascade method used in the Scale-Symmetric Theory.
Below is the link to my new paper (6 pages)

The Universal Rotation Curve of Dwarf Disc Galaxies Created by the Most Massive Disc Galaxies

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), visible mass (or baryonic mass) of most massive disc galaxies is about 0.85 multiplied by both 12 powers of ten and the solar mass.

Calculated within SST the mean baryonic mass of discs of dwarf galaxies produced by such massive galaxies is 5.2 multiplied by both 7 powers of ten and the solar mass. The calculated within SST mean orbital speed of stars in such dwarf galaxies, which results from the interactions of stars with the dark-matter (DM) structures, is about 37 km/s.

SST shows that the total number of dwarf galaxies in the early Universe should be about 2.2 multiplied by 12 powers of ten and should decrease with time because of their mergers and due to their absorption by the nearby massive galaxies (massive galaxies have mass higher than about 11 powers of ten multiplied by the solar mass and there should be a massive black hole in their centre).

In the early Universe there should be about 1000 times more the dwarf galaxies than the massive galaxies.

Contrary to the mainstream cosmology, SST shows that number of massive galaxies in the observed Universe should not depend on time i.e. it is an invariant.

SST shows that we should not observe a smooth field of first stars or smooth field of first dwarf galaxies free from the massive galaxies. Moreover, reionization is an illusory phenomenon which follows from the “transition” of galaxies from the unseen period of evolution to the observed period - it took place in the time distance about 13.8 Gyr.

All theoretical results obtained in this paper are consistent with observational facts.
Below is the link to my new paper (2 pages)

Why the Universe Is Not a Computer Simulation?

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that due to the needed very high resolution of a computer simulating the initial big bang and next the evolution of our Cosmos, we and our Cosmos cannot be a computer simulation.


Below is the link to my new paper (2 pages)

When the First Baryons Were Created?

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the big bang (the superluminal inflation) was separated in time from the “soft” big bang of the Universe.

During the inflation (it lasted about 67 powers of ten times shorter than a second) there was no time for the three Standard-Model interactions i.e. electromagnetism, weak interactions, and the nuclear strong interactions - such interactions need much longer time.

During the inflation baryons were not created. There were created only the neutrino-antineutrino pairs that are the components of the Einstein spacetime (ES). It was because the interactions of the entanglons the neutrinos consist of were due to the inflation field i.e. due to the non-gravitating tachyons moving with speed about 97 powers of ten m/s. It means that the time of interactions of the ES components in distance equal to the Planck length is about 132 powers of ten times shorter than a second.

SST shows that first baryons were created at the end of the inflation because of the collapse of the external layer of the ES - there was created more baryons than antibaryons because initially the inflation field had the left-handed helicity. Due to the return shock wave, there were created additional baryons in the centre of the Cosmos.
Below is the link to my new paper (3 pages)

The 133 e-Folds of Inflation and the CMB Spectral Index of 0.96666

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that there were the 133.27 e-folds of the smooth SST inflation.

On the other hand, SST leads to conclusion that the inflation of the Cosmos, which is about 4 orders of magnitude bigger than the present-day Universe, was separated in time from the expansion of the Universe. The CMB was produced when there dominated the electromagnetic and weak interactions - it leads to the SST CMB spectral index of 0.96666 which is consistent with the index that results from the Planck-satellite 2015 data (0.968 +- 0.006). But the SST CMB spectral index is 3 orders of magnitude more accurate so future more accurate observational data should show whether the SST cosmology is correct.
Below is the link to my new paper (7 pages)

Cosmic Reionization of Hydrogen and Helium and the Supermassive Black Holes in Very Distant Universe

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we answered following question: What is the origin of the cosmic reionization? Presented here scenario differs radically from that described within the mainstream cosmology. Most important are masses of massive galaxies/quasars and the decays of large cosmic structures. Highest rate of reionization of hydrogen should be for redshift z(H,max) = 11.18 whereas complete reionization should occur at z(H,end) = 7.10. For reionization of helium we obtain respectively z(He,max) = 3.63 and z(He,end) = 2.70. Theoretical results are consistent with observational data.

We showed that number and energy of created photons were sufficient to ionize the intergalactic medium.

We answered as well the second very important question: Why there appeared the supermassive black holes so quickly?
Below is the link to my new paper (2 pages)

The Running Hubble Constant Once Again

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the quantum entanglement fixes the speed of light in “vacuum” c in relation to its source or a last-interaction object (it can be a detector). It causes that the spatial distances to galaxies differ from the time distances (the light travel time) - it is the duality of relativity. The duality of relativity leads to the running Hubble constant.

According to SST, for the nearest Universe, the time Hubble constant is 70.52. SST gives for mean time Hubble constant 64.01 - it should be the mean observed Hubble constant when we apply the General Relativity (GR) to the whole observed Universe. If we neglect some part of distant Universe then the GR/observed time Hubble constant should be defined by following interval <64.01, 70.52>.

But emphasize that the real mean spatial Hubble constant calculated within SST is 45.24. It leads to the age of Universe 21.614 +- 0.096 Gyr but time distance to most distant observed Universe cannot be longer than 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr. SST shows that evolution of galaxies accelerated about 13.1 Gyr ago - it leads to an illusion that cosmic objects are not older than 13.1 Gyr.
Below is the link to my new paper (3 pages)

General Relativity Incorrectly Describes the Expansion of the Universe

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we derived formula that converts the SST spatial distance to the SST light travel time that for redshift up to 0.6415 is about 14 - 17% longer than the General Relativity (GR) light travel time. It causes that the Type Ia supernovae are fainter than they should be - it leads to an illusion of acceleration of the expansion of the Universe about 6 - 7 Gyr ago.

SST shows that in reality, to describe correctly the expansion of the Universe, we must take into account the initial conditions for the expansion, the mechanisms of creation of photons and the quantum entanglement of photons in pairs of them.

We showed that there is a stepwise change in the light travel time for redshift about 0.64 - it suggests that there is not a smooth transition from the near Universe to distant Universe - it is inconsistent with GR. The GR formula correctly describes galaxies in the same spatial distance moving with different recessional velocities i.e. concerns the distant Universe.