I'm referring to an old thread from the 2009 archives -- where I originally provided a logical proof that the universe was created by an outside "force" or "God" in the OP: Scientists Deem Creation to Be the Most Rational Explanation of Universe The OP left the atheists spinning their wheels, so the conversation diverged to evolution. I could not provide answers to three of their points at the time, and I said new information has a way of changing old hypotheses like it did with Recapitulation Theory -- that was once taught as gospel when I was in Biology class and was debunked later: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recapitulation_theory . It is also a false analogy to use so-called "vestigial" body parts as proof of evolution -- as I will show. It would be inefficient for the body to carry extra "useless" baggage. So here we are 8 years later and three evolutionary "proofs" are wavering. Human Appendix serves important function for the human digestive system: The appendix was once thought to be an organ of no importance, and proof of an evolutionary past for humans, but it maintains an adequate supply of beneficial bacteria that are vital for human digestion. http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/news/20071012/appendix-may-have-purpose#1 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170109162333.htm https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090820175901.htm Whale Pelvis serves reproductive function The male whale has muscles attached from the pelvis to the penis that give it roto-rooter action like twin kite-strings. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/promiscuous-whales-make-good-use-pelvises-180952620/ Muscles that produce Human Goose pimples are vital for regeneration and for removing wetness from the skin http://www.sciforums.com/threads/sc...anation-of-universe.46031/page-12#post-799359 It causes hair to stand on end, (to stand out). On a human that is generally quite hairless overall, it doesn't have much of an effect - but on an animal that has a lot of hair it serves a very important function. When they get a moment of fear, the papillae squeezes together causing the hair to stand on end. This makes the animal look a lot bigger than it is, and thus possibly prevent an enemy from attacking. During moments of cold, the same process occurs keeping the body better insulated. However, we humans have the most hair on our heads, and we don't get goosebumps on the scalp. Our head-hair doesn't fluff out from an emotional stimulus, or from the cold -- where it would be most effective in the evolutionary sense. http://www.futurity.org/goose-bump-muscle-1324242-2/ In addition, animals with a lot of body hair do not usually have sweat glands, whereas humans have sweat glands. One purpose of goosebumps is to facilitate sweat removal for the human body when the blood vessels constrict beneath the skin. As blood moves to other parts of the body, where it is needed to fight or to stay warm, there is a chill that causes the goose pimples to raise up and wick up perspiration so it will evaporate away from the body. Goosebumps as an emotional response help to move the blood where it needs to go, including sexual arousal.