Continuation of aether wind experiments... 4. Modern experiments 4.1 Jaseva, Javan, 1964 On a rotating table, 2 high-stability infrared masers lay in a perpendicular position. The researchers allowed an anisotropy of up to 30 m/s, deduced from the difference in frequency. 4.2 Shamir and Fox, 1969 A replicated M-M type experiment with light beams passing through plexiglass (n=1.49). The sensitivity of the laser-based optics was ~0.00003. The researchers reported null results, allowing that the max deviation could be véter=6.64 m/s. 4.3 Hafele and Keating, 1971 The young researchers flew an atomic clock around the Earth using commercial flights. When they avoided the Earth in an easterly direction, the clock was 59 nanoseconds late, while heading west, the clock hurry a 273 ns. This is therefore a positive effect, which Hafele explained by the Earth's rotation and the SR and GR theories. Subsequent H-K-type experiments only increased the accuracy, thus confirming the approximate figures. Notes: The measurement results are not fictitious, as many would like to make them appear. The clock was indeed stopped by something, and in fact, two physical effects were operating simultaneously. The effect of the speed was to increase the mass of the cesium atoms and therefore to reduce the clock signal, the frequency of the signal emitted during the spin reversal. Heading east, the speed of the plane and the speed of the ground surface added together, while heading west, it subtracted. The measured asymmetry proves that the surrounding medium - the aether - is stationary, i.e. not rotating with the Earth. From the Earth, the aether wind is therefore blowing upwards. Nota bene, it is up there, in the aether wind, that the M-M experiment must be conducted! This means that the Michelson Morley experiment is completely misinterpreted by the original experimenters, and by the present-day experimenters. The experimental instrument, laid down on the surface of the Earth and rotated back and forth, should not, and indeed must not, show any change or streak shift, since the experimenters are experimenting in a stationary ether layer. The phenomenon is somewhat masked by the acceleration of the clock due to altitude because the energy of gravity increases with distance from the Earth, and with it the energy of the atoms. The two effects are even more pronounced in the GPS satellite clock. The satellite "flies" higher and faster, so it shows a time difference of 3 orders of magnitude per day. 4.4 Brillet and Hall, 1979 Improved laser test for space anisotropy. One of the lowest limiting experiments. The difference frequencies of two infrared He-Ne (~1015 Hz) lasers were measured while one was standing and the other lying on a rotating table. The researchers detected a difference frequency of 17 Hz, but this was considered to be internal noise in the laboratory. Thus, they found the anisotropy of the vacuum to be less than 0.000001 m/s. Notes: Without a figure, it is difficult to decide whether the researchers hoped to produce a different frequency from the light path between the two lasers or the change inside the circulating laser. In the second case, there are two other possibilities. If the tube of the laser is perpendicular to the direction of motion, a so-called perpendicular Doppler effect can occur. The problem with this is that half of the physicists believe in the phenomenon, while the other half do not. If, on the other hand, the laser tube is in the direction of motion, then again there are only two cases. Assuming that the circumferential velocity has not changed the frequency of the outgoing light, it will then change due to the Doppler effect of the 45-degree deflecting mirror in front of it. On the other hand, the speed would decrease the wavelength of the standing wave in the tube and increase its frequency. Just enough to compensate for the Doppler effect on the mirror. A confounding factor is that it is difficult to change the number of standing waves in a gas laser because their ends tend to bounce off the surface of the internal mirrors. Despite the uncertainties raised, I decided not to read the original paper (Phys.Rew.Let. page 4). I prefer to believe the researchers, as their result fits in with the general trend. 4.5 Frisher et al, 1990 "Remote Lasers" The experimenters placed 2 infrared lasers on the ground and connected them with a 21 km optical cable. The phase difference of the incoming waves was monitored. The upper limit of possible anisotropy was set at 100 m/s. My comments: Neither the theoretical basis of the experiment nor the concrete design of the experiment is clear from the verbose summary of the review article. Would one have expected the light waves from the Western laser to be delayed, or even diminished, by the aether winds blowing from the east? Unfortunately, any delay would only be momentary and would occur at the moment the coiled cable was uncoiled. Every second thereafter, exactly as many waves are received as are emitted by the source laser. Here lasers are supposed to act as atomic clocks, whereas they are just high-stability wave sources. The atomic clocks would display the time difference of the light pulses on the back and forth path, thousands of wavenumber differences (f=~1015 Hz, n=1.5). Unfortunately, this device can only detect a maximum of 1/4 wave phase difference, and the other 1000 are lost. The published aether speed of 100 m/s as an upper limit is unfounded and is a delayed experimental result anyway. 4.6 Hils and Hall, 1990 This is similar to the Brillet and Hall experiment. However, both lasers are fixed to the ground for better stability. No frequency deviation was observed at the 2*10-13 sensitivity level. (Apparently, the experiment was continued for 1 year.) In my professional opinion, the Brillet and Hall experiment is equivalent to the Michelson-Morley experiment. And the Hils and Hall experiments are roughly equivalent to the Kennedy and Thorndike experiment. 4.7 Wolf and Petit, 1997 "Test of SR using the GPS system." The results of the test show that the anisotropy is less than 5*10-9, i.e. 0.6 m/s. Observations: It is an unfounded, even naive idea to assume that the orbital plane of satellites rotates with the Earth. It naturally maintains a constant position relative to the Universe. If it did rotate, it would in no way be a consequence of special relativity. But it doesn't! So the test proves classical mechanics against SR and GR. Nowadays, SR is still the fashionable stove-pole from which experimental physicists start their hypotheses and explanations. The problem is that they make faces as if they understand relativity. It is a fashionable attitude, and an expected joining of the camp of the savvy: "If others say they 'get it (?), I'll do the same. Besides, the SR reference will increase the authority of my work." Let's face it, SR is a seemingly simple but abstract theory that negates physical reality and is hyper-complicated. It's not enough to be a physicist on this subject, you have to be a specialist. If it were up to me, I would ban reference to it by experimental physicists. 4.8 Chen, Beijing, 1997 This is a replication of the Brillet-Hall experiment with even greater precision. Here, the researchers found that the anisotropy of the speed of light was maxed at 10-18. 4.9 Mueller et al, 2003 Modern Michelson-Morley experiment with cryogenic optical resonators. The anisotropy was less than 10-15. 4.10 Herrmann et al, 2005 This is also a test for the isotropy of the speed of light. The experimental device was a constantly rotating optical resonator. The limit is 10-16. 4.11 C.W. Chou et al, 2010 The "American" experimental physicist developed an extremely sensitive and extra-stable energy measuring instrument. It consists of two metal boxes, each containing an exciting aluminum-ion radiation source (~1015Hz, near-ultraviolet range.) One box contains the electronics for the difference frequency display and is connected to the other box by a 70 m optical cable. If the energy level of one of the boxes changes, the frequency emitted by the aluminum ions inside it changes. It can detect heights as low as 0.5 m and speeds as high as 3.2 m/s, with a difference signal of 0.05 Hz. Eh=mgh=1*10*0,5=5J, Em=mv2/2=1*3,22/2=5J. This stylized calculation is for a mass of 1 kg, but instead, think of the mass of an aluminum atom. Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image!