Just a quick question: Looking at orbitals and their various shapes and energies, and looking at the layman level chapter in an old (2000) chemistry book in the sub-chapter on Wave Properties of Matter and Wave Mechanics, they are getting into electrons as standing waves right after they briefly mention Erwin Schrodinger on the wave nature of matter. They quickly say, "... His work and the theory that developed from it are highly mathematical. Fortunately, we need only a qualitative understanding of electronic structure, and the main points of the theory can be understood without all the math." They characterize the orbitals at a given energy to be calculated using the wave function, and they refer to the shape of the electron wave and its energy. Does the "shape" of an orbital refer to the three dimensional space within which, according to probabilities, the particular electron can be found relative to the nucleus when the atom is at a certain level of excitement and will remain within that unchanged space until an energy change within the atom occurs (which in practice, I suspect, change occurs in the next instant, lol.)? And about the standing wave nature of the electron: is the shape of the orbital while it has that particular shape and energy said to be a standing wave, and does that mean that the wave is two dimensional and in its natural action within that orbital can be anywhere within that three dimensional space? Or have I gotten off track on thinking this through? Edit: What I'm getting at with the standing wave question is the discussion in my most recent Chemistry book, in the Chapter about Atomic and Electronic Structure, refers to the electron in particular as a standing wave, but in general I take the discussion about standing waves to be referring to matter waves in general being standing waves. I guess I could ask, does the quantum mechanical model of the atom that uses orbitals (which are referred to as standing waves) for the electrons, also refer to the quarks in the nucleons as standing waves as well?