DNA doesn't lie. They were able to show when Europeans started to have paler skin and they know the genes that caused it, just as they are able to track the darker skin traits as well. Sure, we may not know the exact tone, but we know enough to show that someone with sub-Saharan features will more than likely not be white, especially if their DNA is also factored into the fray. Forensic "artists" as you call them, usually have to go through extensive training in archaeology, anthropology and several subjects in the medical field to be able to reconstruct those faces and features. It's a fairly measured science. I knew a girl who went on to study that at university and she did it to go and work with the ICC and the UN and their war crimes tribunal, to reconstruct the faces of skeletons found in mass graves, to help with identification. We might refer to them as artists, but it takes a stupid amount of training. They don't do it as a guess. There are measurements they work from. It's not a matter of throwing clay and just guessing. Actually no. Red hair and pale skin is not from our Neanderthal cousins. Red hair, for example: In 2000, Harding et al. concluded that red hair is not the result of positive selection but of a lack of negative selection. In Africa, for example, red hair is selected against because high levels of sun harm untanned skin. However, in Northern Europe this does not happen, so redheads can become more common through genetic drift. Estimates on the original occurrence of the currently active gene for red hair vary from 20,000 to 100,000 years ago. A DNA study has concluded that some Neanderthals also had red hair, although the mutation responsible for this differs from that which causes red hair in modern humans. And pale skin only developed in the last 10,000 years or so.. Some may be a bit earlier by 12,000 to 15,000 in the Nordic areas. Long after Neanderthals died out. Could it be a genetic link? Depends. Neanderthals ranged from very dark to pale. Much like Homo sapiens turned out to be.. They have been able to see through DNA found in various remains when Homo sapiens started to become paler in Europe and Asia, though. So we can get a general idea. 430,000 or so, I believe.. That has been sequenced, either way. Well yes and no. They can and do look at other fossils found and can trace back with DNA to a certain extent. I mean we can trace our lineage to a certain extent from fossil records. We know where we came from. You mean behaviour like revulsion at the thought that one's ancestors had black skin and attempting to rewrite human history so that they do not? There is very little to suggest that Europeans are somehow a different "race" of hominids that evolved in Morocco or Europe because the thought that modern man evolved in the Eastern region of sub-Saharan Africa is repulsive.. So I would agree with you there. Just makes me sneer.