Darwin's theory of evolution and natural selection was originally based on observations at the macro scale of life; we can see with the eyes. Potentials in the environment, help define natural selection. If we were in the desert, this environment sets unique physical parameters which life needs to adapt to, to be selected. If there are genetic changes, in existing desert animals, changes that allow better adaptation to the desert, will be selected. The goal of this topic is to extrapolate Darwin Theory, and explore natural selection at the nanoscale instead of at the macro-scale. In this case, the nanoscale environment is the solvent; water. Water, as the dominant and continuous phase, will set unique environmental potentials, at the nanoscale, which will create a natural selection process for the evolution of life. If we remove the water from any cell or any level of life down to enzymes, these will not work and life will be gone. If we replace the water with another solvent, still nothing works properly, and there is still no life. The reason is life on earth has evolved in a water environment. All the chemical systems are optimize to the water environment. If we replace the solvent, it is like placing a polar bear at the equator. He will not be selected there. Other solvents will set a different nanoscale environment and would select different chemicals so they can be more functional.