Couldn't leave James R without giving you something to chew on - Relativity Exposed ---------------------------- Relativity is a useful mathematical tool but a totally flawed physical concept. The biggest error is in the assertion that there is no absolute frame of reference. Granted one has never been identified but you must remember that "Absence of Evidence" is NOT "Evidence of Absence". That is on the order of trying to prove a negative. The fact is that Special Relativity as applied is in fact based on absolute motion not merely relative velocity between frames. The difference is the motion is always relative to some inertia rest frame. An inertial rest frame is where there is no acceleration but possibly a constant or uniform velocity, not necessarily some absolute rest universally. This can be emphasized by the following example: Given three clocks "A", "B" & "C", all at common rest and synchronized, then accelerate clocks "A" & "B" away from "C" at equal rates and for equal duration but in opposite directions, until they both achieve a velocity of 0.866c relative to "C". Mathematically both "A" & "B" will now have a dilated tick rate relative to "C" of t' = t * (1 - v^2/c^2)^0.5 and both "A" & "B" are now ticking only once for every two ticks of "C". Gamma = 2.0. However, what is important here is the fact that "A" & "B" have a relative velocity between themselves but there is no time dilation between them and they remain synchronized. The dilation is between their velocity to the common rest frame and not as a function of relative velocity between clocks. It makes no difference had "A" & "B" been launched in a co-moving direction and hence having had no relative velocity between them. Relative velocity between clocks is not relevant to time dilation. Only actual motion relative to an inertial rest frame is. Time dilation is clearly a function of "Actual Velocity" generated by an acceleration period and not merely "Relative Velocity" generated between observers by actual velocity of one observer. For it is ONLY the accelerated observer that has an actual velocity change universally to the reference frame, that suffers time dilation. The hypothetical or mathematical assertion regarding each observer Sees, Percieves or Observer the other as being time dilated is irrelevant to the physical reality. "Appearances" during relative velocity are not the physical reality. Both may "Appear" dilated due to the illusion of motion but only the most accelerated clock will be emperically permanently dilated relative to the other on final analysis in a common rest frame. Indeed Einstein's relative velocity view generates reciprocity, that is the situation where both clocks are ticking slower than the other. A clearly impossible condition, not merely" a "Counter Intuitive" one. This fact prompted the well known "Twin Paradox" scenario. The "Twin Paradox" is where one twin stays on Earth while the other goes into space and travels at relavistic velocities to return and find he is younger but then trying to explain why the Earth bound twin isn't younger since he had the same relative velocity. This conundrum was resolved by asserting that the travelling twin broke the symmetry by "Switching Frames". "Frame Switching" is a clever word game to not emphasize the fact that to "Switch Frames" one must accelerate and achieve an "Actual Velocity" change universally. Another favorite bragging right of relativist is GPS but it is a bag of worms when it comes to relativity. Many claim it is proof of relativity that both General Relativity and Special Relativity must be used to get GPS to function. Others claim since orbit is a form of rotation that it is not possible to apply Special Relativity since you are under constant acceleration and hence not in an inertial reference frame. Yet orbit is a form of free fall and normal accelerating free fall is considered an inertial condition. The simple fact is that GPS does not use Special Relativity but uses Lorentz Relativity. The difference is Lorentz Relativity is an absolute motion concept and employs what may be called "Common Locally Preferred Absolute Rest Reference Frames". This is not some universal absolute rest frame but a reference which cannot be reversed. That is you cannot assert the inertial motion of a clock is also at rest. In SR you can switch views and assert that either clock in inertial motion is at rest and it is the other that has motion. That results in the untenable reciprocity where each clock then must run slower than the other simultaneously. In Lorentz Relativity you cannot switch views one clock has actual motion and the other clock is always at rest. This is achieved in GPS by using what is called the Earth Center Inertial (ECI) Frame. Gps computes orbit velocity from the perspective of the center of the earth and you cannot then claim that the satellite is at rest and the center of the earth has motion. The same mathematical formula is used in Lorentz Relativity as Special Relativity to compute the time dilation affect but the affect is based on the satellite's "Actual Orbit Velocity" not some relative velocity between it and surface clocks. A review of potential relative velocity views demonstrates the falicy of Special Relativty in GPS. Using simplified estimating procedures due to the minimal velocities involved.: GPS orbiting satellites have a velocity (V1) of 3,874.5 m/s. A surface clock at the equator has a rotational velocity of (V2) of 463.8 m/s and "0" m/s at the poles. You cannot simply use direct relative velocity because it is constantly changing since the orbiting satelites are not geostationary relative to the surface. If they were geostationary then there would be no relative velocity between clocks. Therefore the only relative velocity that one might consider would be the differential between their respective rotational velocities. That is relative velocity could be considered V3 = V1 - V2 = 3,874.5 m/s - 463.8 m/s = 3,410.7 m/s. Applying Special Relativity one would get: (3,410 m/s) / c = 1.1369E-5, squared = 1.2925E-10. Divided by 2 = 6.4627E-11. Time loss due to relative velocity would be 6.4627E-11 * 24 * 3,600 = 5.58378E-6 or -5.58 micro-seconds per day. However this is an incorrect value as emperically determined. However, using the GPS Lorenz Relativity procedure where orbit velocity is computed relative to the preferred ECI frame: 3,874.5 m/s / c = 1.2915E-5, squared = 1.66797E-10. Divided by 2 = 8.33986E-11. Time loss due to orbit velocity is 8.33986E-11 * 24 * 3,600 = 7.205E-6 or -7.2 micro-seconds per day. This happens to be the correct value found emperically to satisfy GPS requirements. It should be noted that surface velocity is not considered directly but at the equator would be: (463.8 m/s) / c = 1.546E-6, squared = 3.29E-12. Divided by 2 = 1.195058E-12. Time loss due to surface velocity would be 1.195058E-12 * 24 * 3,600 = 1.0325E-7 or -0.1 micro-second per day only 1.4% of the actual emperical amount. Further that due to the oblate sphereoid shape of the planet it has been found that at sea level over the Eath's surface there is no time dilation affect since General Relativity and Velocity affects are equal, opposite and cancel. So there is a complete disagreement between experts regarding GPS and relativity. What is known is that computing orbit velocity from the ECI frame works and any computation of relative velocity between orbit and surface clocks doesn't. Another bone of contention is how Einstien inconsistantly manipulates physical reality. Special Relativity has you belive that a common relative velocity cause generates two distinctly different physical results as a matter of observer perspective. Physical reality is not a matter of perception. It is either real or simply an illusion of motion. Given one clock remaining at rest and another accelerated to some relative velocity to it then Special Relativity claims that the traveling clock is time dilated, that is it is ticking slower than the resting clock. That claim appears to be founded by emperical data. However, Special Relativity then has you believe that from the perspective of the traveling clock that the clock ticks in synch with the resting clock such that distance the traveling clock goes is foreshortened by Lorentz Contraction. There is simply no physical data to support the concept of spatial contraction as a function of relative velocity. Further it is completely without logic that a common cause would generate two distinctly different physical results based on observer perspective. The fact that we view relative velocity as being symmetrical (i.e. - if I am moving away from you at 30 Mph then you are moving away from me at 30 Mph) is rational and certainly true based on a common universal time standard. However, one must recall that velocity is a computed value based on the ratio of two physical parameters - change in distance per change in time. v = ds / dt. And when you have a moving frame where the clock is dilated t2 does not equal t1. It can be shown that given t2 is dilated and equals 0.5t1, where t1 = 1.0 and ds = 1.0 that v1 = ds /t1 = 1.0/1.0 = 1.0 and v2 = ds / t2 = 1.0 / 0.5 = 2.0. In other words while our senses are justified regarding relative velocity being symmetrical it is based on a common universal standard time base but what relativity shows is that time varies as a function of absolute motion. Therefore actual relative velocity may be symmetrical universally but individual observers will compute different relative velocities once motion begins to affect tick rates of respective clocks. Realizing this one can now see that what Special Relativity does is switch time standards between frames to mathematically justifiy claiming Lorentz Contraction. But the fact is if the clock is physically dilated the trip time is only correct if distance does not change. This issue can be equated to driving between two cities known to be 60 miiles apart. The car speed-o-meter is broken, the o-dometer works fine but his watch batteries are low and he doesn't realize that his watch is only ticking at 1/2 the normal rate. As he leaves the driver calls a friend and tells him I'm on my way, see you shortly. One half hour later according to the driver he arrives and exclaims "Wow" 60 miles in 30 minutes, I averaged 120 Mph!. His friend objects and says no you took an hour and therefore you averaged 60 Mph. Just because the drivers watch was dilated does not mean distance between cities contracted. If you retain the physical dilated tick rate of a moving clock in all frames then Lorentz Contraction cannot be real. To accept Special Relativity one must accept many absurd consequences. 1 - Assume you are travelling at 0.5c away from Earth at a distance measured by you to be one million miles. Which means monitors on Earth see you as being 1,154,700 miles away. You now accelerate instantly to 0.55c away from earth. You will measure distance to now only be 964,365 miles. You accelerated AWAY from Earth but got 35,635 miles closer!!!!. Even more bizzar is if you fire a high velocity weapon in the direction of travel. That is you remain 1,000,000 miles from Earth but the bullet is now only 964,365 miles from Earth but you and your bullet are both still in the same physical spacecraft. Even more bizzar is the claimed velocity addition view from Earth where you are travelling at 0.5c and the bullet is traveling at 0.05c relative to you from your view but according to Earth the bullet is only traveling w = (u+v) / (1 +uv/c) = (0.5+.05) / (1 + 0.5 * .05) = 0.536c relative to Earth or only 0.0365c relative to you. All of which generates numerous different velocities hence different clock tick rates simultaneously for the same physical clocks, all as a function of observer perception. That cannot describe anything physical. 2 - Assume the accelerations above occurs over 1 hour and assume you are measuring distance to Alpha Centuri as you are passing Earth toward Alpha Centuri and accelerate. During that hour you will have traveled 0.525 light hours. Not enough to take into account for the point being made. Such that before acceleration you would have been 4.3 lyr*0.866 = 3.72 lyr away by your measurement. After acceleration you will be 3.59 lyr away. That is 0.128 lyr change in distance in just one hour! 144 times faster than light (FTL) !! Relativists produce mathematics to show that this affect is hidden behind an Event Horizon and claim Special Relativity is salvaged. That is not the case. It is an entirely different issue to say something is not seen than it is to say it doesn't happen. That is their math doesn't preclude the FTL event. That appears on the surface to be complete nonsense. They would have you believe that you would no longer see Alpha Centuri approaching based on the light at the physical location you are at. What it would really mean is that distance didn't actually contract. They argue that it doesn't count because it involves acceleration and hence is no longer Special Relativity. That doesn't count either. Special Relativity asserts that nothing can travel FTL, not that nothing can be seen to travel FTL. They argue that Special Relativity only says nothing can travel through local space FTL and that a change in space is not limited. But it is the very math of Special Relativity that is generating the FTL event. This arguement also leads to the following issue: 3 - We currently see the universe as undergoing an accelerated expansion where objects are approaching v = c. If you believe in Special Relativity and Lorentz Contraction then these remote objects that appear to be accelerating away due to spatial expansion MUST then be decelerating so as to cause an inverse Lorentz Contraction. 4 - Numerous objects have been observed and measured to be traveling FTL in the universe. But relativists have conviently generated math to show that along a narrow line-of-sight path that subluminal motion can appear to be FTL. As a result all such observations are ignored inspite of the fact that it has been shown that less than 1% of such objects show either red or blue shift meaning they are not moving in the line of sight. Indeed they are cited as having "Proper Motion" that is orthogonal to the line of sight. 5 - It is claimed that some things can move FTL as long as no information is transfered. That too is just a giant Texas Two Step because it is ludricrus to suggest that Particle Entanglement does not require transfer of information. For one particle to change in synch with another remote particle at superluminal rates still requires information pass from one particle to another. SUMMARY: While I certainly do not proclaim to have the anwers, I do believe these are important questions and issues which have not and are not properly addressed today by science. One thought which I suggest should be pursued is that light is not actually invariant. That is the illusion of invariance is being created by a misunderstanding about the production of light. For example we know that Cerenkov Radiation produces light and it is caused by charged particles moving FTL in a medium such as water. Is it not possible that photons are then the by product of something moving FTL in the vacuum of space? Of course it is and if that were true then each observer having motion relative to this spatial background adds or subtracts their velocity so as to generate photons at v = c relative to their absolute motion. If that is the case then every observer is viewing a different photon produced as a function of quantum energy from the same source along some carrier signal moving FTL and not the same photon moving at some invariant velocity. That view suggests such carrier might also explain Particle Entanglement.