Genetics Trasformation

Discussion in 'Biology & Genetics' started by Kumar, Oct 15, 2003.

  1. Kumar Registered Senior Member

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    We are made from 44 genes & whatever informations feeded in these genes, remains effecteve throughout our whole life. During the life time, we also gather some more informations which may be coded in our current genes and then passed on to our new generation via 22+22 genes in sperm & ova egg. Suppose we suffer some disease & get cured, then we may get some resistance/fighting power coding in our 44 genes, which will also be passed to our next genarations. My questions are:-

    1. Whether we get some resistance/fighting power coding in our current genes also OR these can only be passed to the next generations without effecting our current genes.

    2. This coding if any in current genes is aquired by all our 44 genes or just by one or few genes.

    3. Till how many next generations, the effect of this coding will remain present.

    4. If we gets some coding during the current life which may manifest or aquired in our genes, then is it posible to alter or remove this coded information from ; (a) the current genes (b) the next generation's genes.

    Thanks & best wishes.
     
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  3. Idle Mind What the hell, man? Valued Senior Member

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    There are a few misconceptions presented here, so I will do my best to set them straight, and then answer your questions accordingly.

    First of all, the human genome contains more than 30,000 genes, as a rough number. Since this would be an absolutely massive molecule, it is organized into smaller parcels, called chromosomes: there are 23 in humans. However, there are 2 copies of each, giving a total of 46. These are just the basics, there are technicalities, but we can ignore them for the sake of this conversation.

    Secondly, when you get an illness, it is not your genetic code that changes in defense. Again, the genetic code will technically change in the case of viral infection, since the virus inserts its genome into the host's, but that is not what contributes to immunity. What happens, is there are cells that 'patrol' the body for foreign particles, and when one is encountered, they produce antibodies. These then act as signals, flagging down the particular particle for destruction next time it enters the cell. I know, this is a major over-simplification, but I don't see it necessary to get into too much detail here.

    As far as I know, immunity to such infections doesn't get passed on to future generations. If anyone has anything to add, please do. I'm not sure if I touched on everything I meant to, or if I covered everything properly. I hope this helps somewhat.
     
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  5. Kumar Registered Senior Member

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    Hello Idle Mind,

    Thanks fot the reply. You mentioned that human genome contains more than 30,000 genes, In simple language it means humans have 30,000 TYPES of genes. But how they are divided in genetic & non genetic cells. I have heard 22+22 genes in sperm + Ova are combined.

    It is usually heard that 'resistance developed against some medicines like anti-biotics OR Pest's resistance to old pestisides'. How this so called resistance is developed in both current & future generations. Is it not related to genatic code of both generations?
     
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  7. spuriousmonkey Banned Banned

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    I think you mean chromosomes and not genes.
     
  8. MRC_Hans Skeptic Registered Senior Member

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    I'm trying a different typography for point for point answers, since there is some sentiment about the bold type answers (not from Kumar):

    Hans
     
  9. MRC_Hans Skeptic Registered Senior Member

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    Hans
     
  10. Kumar Registered Senior Member

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    It looks bit doubtfull. Some changes in coding of genes is definetly possible. Otherwise how you will propose the inherited/heriditary disorders like diabetes.
    But it will go on diluting generation to generation as ...
    As above. Also how we will then justify Immunization due to vaccinations. Current Medical Science is developing lot of resistant antibiotics etc. Do you feel all these are fake things.
     
    Last edited: Oct 15, 2003
  11. spuriousmonkey Banned Banned

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    genes do not dilute.
     
  12. Idle Mind What the hell, man? Valued Senior Member

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    There are several types of diabetes. Some are hereditary, some are not.
    Vaccinations work by using viral 'ghosts', or a similar virus to which the vaccine is to defend against that is benign, and having the body create antibodies against them. In other words, a vaccine puts a virus into your body to tell your body what to look out for. This doesn't change the genetic code in any way, but the person is immune. Keep in mind, most infants must go through a series of vaccinations in order to be immune to infections, they are not inherited.
     
  13. spuriousmonkey Banned Banned

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    vaccinations help the endogenous immune system to overcome a pathogen. It does not attack any pathogens itself.
     
  14. Kumar Registered Senior Member

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    Hello all,

    I am sorry, I am mistaken in mentioning, Actually these are 44 Autosomes+ 2 Hetrosomes making total 46 chromosomes. Any way we are talking about genes. Whatever we aquire in our life time (which is called as inherited) will be stored in our body ready to pass to our offsprings. I want to know how & where it is stored in our body during our lifetime & how it will be passed to our next generations. Diluting means we pass half the chromosomes(23) mixed with 23 of our partner. In next generation half of ours 23 & half of our partner's 23 plus 23 of the new partner of our offspring will be tranfered resulting in diluting our chromosones in next generations i.e. 23>>11.5>>5.75....so on.

    I think I made it bit clear. Thanks.
     
    Last edited: Oct 15, 2003
  15. MRC_Hans Skeptic Registered Senior Member

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    As already explained, vaccine sort of programs your immune system against the disease. The immune system stores this information, but not in genes. Natural immunity works in the same way, thus, you only get, say, chicken pox once.

    Hans
     
  16. Kumar Registered Senior Member

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    Dear Mr.Hans,

    Thanks again. I have to clear the followings:-

    No, you must have misunderstood this. Aquired properties do not get inherited.

    It is quite surprising. It meand we do not get anything as inherited form our parents & GOD makes us ' JUST A FRESH ' . Are you sure that you are not mistaking it with only Infectious diseases insted of non-infectious disorders like Diabetes. You mean to say that this disorder or its part is also not inherited by us. I think it a commonly accepted science/theory that diabetes is an heriditary disorder or disease.

    the genes coming from the partner will be for the most part identical to yours, and there is such a thing as recessive genes

    If we are not agreeing that there are some manifestations of any kind in genes, which are parent based(acquired by them ) , then this point is irrelavant.

    I would prefer to have broad views of other members also in this regard. Pls.
     
  17. Ice Registered Member

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    There are genetic predispositions to certain illnesses like diabetes however these genetic predispositions are not acquired throughout the lifetime of the parents, any genetic disease or genetic predisposition has been brought about by random mutation, which arose in the egg or sperm, not within the cells of the parent. Any mutations that occur within body cells of an individual are somatic mutations and they are not passed onto the offspring. Only mutations that occur in the gametes will be passed on, and these mutations will not affect the original parent, but will affect their children and their progeny. There are certain genetic diseases like sickle-celled anemia which do give rise to immunity to certain other diseases in certain circumstances. In the case of sickle-celled anemia if the offspring receives one allel (copy of the gene from one parent) which is normal, and one allel for sickle-celled anemia, the offspring is immune to getting Malaria. This is because the mutation which causes sickle-celled anemia changes the shape of the red blood cells in a way that the Malaria-causing mosquitoes can no longer infect the cells! I don’t think that this type of situation is overly common in nature however.

    Predisposition to diabetes can be inherited from parent in some cases. There are two types of diabetes. Type I diabetes usually starts in childhood, and is believed to have a genetic component, and thus could be passed on from parent to offspring. It results from the inability to produce sufficient levels of insulin to regulate blood sugar levels, and is usually controlled by insulin injections. Type II diabetes is more diet related, and can usually be controlled by oral medications, or by monitoring your diet. This type of diabetes may also be influenced by genetic predisposition, however I don’t believe that research has determined a clear explanation for the genetic predisposition to diabetes.

    I hope this helps, I don't have a lot of information on the subject, but from my understanding, that's how it works.

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  18. MRC_Hans Skeptic Registered Senior Member

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    Hans
     
  19. spuriousmonkey Banned Banned

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    but you are handling it so well Hans!
     
  20. Kumar Registered Senior Member

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    (a) It means, our genes passes the genotype traits which are either inherited by us from our parents or acquired (added or deducted) by us during our life time(till the offspring) subject to mutation effects of our partner's genotype traits. Partner's genotype may suppress or enhance the genotype mutation effects.
    Due to your definition of genotype traits now this & next para is clear.

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    Now one more important thing. As mentioned above, we may be manifesting some genetic diseases OR some resistance to these diseases in our genes(inherited & acquired) which is necessary for survival. Is it possible that with any medication or other alternative therapies we may remove these manifestations.

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  21. spuriousmonkey Banned Banned

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    our genotype forms a phenotype, which is partly inherited by the combined genotype of our parents and partly by the environment. And our phenotype is not reverted back into our genotype or is it passed along again to our offspring. The combined genotype of both partners in their offspring may suppress or enhance the mutations accumulated in this genotype over time.

    is that what you are trying to say?
     
  22. MRC_Hans Skeptic Registered Senior Member

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    Hans
     
  23. spuriousmonkey Banned Banned

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    we develop from a fertilized egg into an adult. During this development the germ line (which are the cells that will produce eggs and sperm) are set apart early on from the somatic cells (those cells that will form the body). These two cells do not mix anymore.

    Any mutation picked up in the somatic cells, such as the immune system, can never be part of the germ cell line. Hence an acuired phenotype after fertilization cannot manifest itself in any other cell than the mutated cell or its offspring. Since germ cells and somatic cells DO NOT mix, only mutations in the germ cells can be passed on to the offspring.
     

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