More details on StatOil´s east African NG discovery, mentioned in post 533 the day it was announced, as this E. African field has great impact on US being able to sell NG to others: "... The logging results now show that the discovery is a high impact discovery, so far proving up to 5 Tcf of gas in-place. The well has encountered 120 metres of excellent quality reservoir with high porosity and high permeability. The gas-water contact has not been established and drilling operations are on-going. "This discovery is the first Statoil operated discovery in East Africa and an important event for the future development of the Tanzanian gas industry. ..." From: http://news.morningstar.com/all/ViewNews.aspx?article=/ACQ/ff80808135ab8db20135ae3019dc1c9e_univ.xml Billy T comment:This new NG field (and some others near to Asian markets), may deliver NG to China, etc. at lower cost than even the well head production costs of US fracking NG. Just the cost of hauling train loads of sand to the fracking well may be higher. (My year old investment in UP railroad is up 50% mainly due to these card loads of sand, and transport of oil+ NG liquids in tank cars until new pipelines can be built into ND) Ocean transport of LNG is very cheap. World´s largest floating structure (an LNG Plant) is nearing completion (I think) off the Australian NW coast to exploit the very cheap NG deposit found there. The US may end up importing LNG instead of using its shale trapped NG, if EPA and local pressure, about ground water pollution add to the cost. I also bought stock in ESPH, a new non-chemical water recovery technology, now being used for a few fracking wells as cheaper and chemical free. It is up 35% in just a few months. No. It is cheap unit ~15 years old with no AC connections. Battery now has self discharge time of a few minutes. It has four small solar cells and lives in window that can get sun, but was cloudy when needed. I am too lazy to load in Excel when in my head I can get within 10% of correct value. Gustav More within the hour (link to proof etc) but quickly sugar cane based fuel is slightly carbon negative, considered only by it self. If it is displacing fossil fuel it is a huge reduction in CO2 release. Even if you clear a forest, which is storing a lot of carbon to plant the cane, in something like a decade, the forest carbon released has been off-set by the fossil fuel CO2 NOT released. From that point on in time, even a "forested-cleared-to-plant" sugar cane field makes a net reduction in CO2. In Brazil´s case, where for decades the world´s largest cattle herd was eating grass, AND land was so cheap that like US´s Southern cotton plantation owners, the land was not cared for. - Ranchers just moved on to a new field (for 100 years or so). Thus, there are a lot of abandoned pastures*, now over grown with weeds in Brazil. About 10 times more than the area now planted in sugar cane. I.e. area of Brazil´s sugar cane could be expanded about 10 fold before any trees need to be cut down, just by reclaiming the abandoned pasture. ---------------- * When I first moved to Brazil, about 20 years ago, to live with a beautiful university professor I Had met in Mexico, I bought one of these "abandoned pastures" - about 100 acres with two small (two bed rooms in each) houses and a dammed up lake of several acres as "Plan B." I paid $23,000 for it, in Dollars as they were much desired back then with Brazil´s high rate of inflation. It had 10 very scrawny cows on it. (Climbing up and down the hills looking for grass to eat took the same energy as the grass gave.) For about $3500 in plowing and grass seed, in 10 years, when I sold it (Then very sure Plan B was not needed), I had 50 fat steers, that alone sold for much more** than I had paid (In part due FX changes making the Brazilian Reais, I received buy more than twice as many dollars as when I bought with dollars.) ** I.e. Sales price, converted to dollars, less $3500, less $12,000 (which was the 44 hour/ week field hand´s $100/ month for 10 years) was more than twice my $23,000 purchase price. The cattle make a Darwinian disadvantage to the grass. The field hand with his hoe, make an even greater disadvantage to the weeds. This is about the only care a well established pasture in Brazil needs. (Cow provides plenty of fertilizer exactly where the grass is! You may think $100 (in Reais)/ month is exploitation, but I had friction with other absentee land owners, as their field hands started asking for the same as I paid. My field hand was a local leader, very smart, but so badly educated that he could barely read and do long division. Brazil has lost a more than a generation of very talented high native intelligence people. *** (Our maid may be inherently more intelligent than I am - she quit school after fourth grade.) He never knew when I would visit the farm for a few days once or twice each month, but was always hard at work in the field when I arrived. *** I think surviving for more than 300 years, under despotic rule by a few rich in Brazil has made some Darwinian selection for high native intelligence, which from my observations is on average significantly higher in Brazil than in the USA. When Brazil adequately educates it population – look out - a new world intellectual leadership will arise.