re: peacocks: it appears to be the overall show that attracts the females, not the specific number of eyespots. I was going to mention sexual selection. This is a perfect example. Were a species to become non-violent, there would still be sexual selection, which would drive evolution along. it would just run slower than a species which had both violent survival and sexual selection pushing it. Don't forget that while peacocks love to show off for the ladies, they will attack each other, too. they are not in the "non-violent" catagory. For a plant to live, it has to pull in more water, get more light, and inhale more air than it's neighbors. if it doesn't, it neighbors outgrow it, and shade it out, killing it. For animals to survive, they must consume organic matter of some sort. As long as there is a limited supply of energy and a limited amount of area in which to live, living requires that you create a certain amount of suffering in the other things which are alive. Every time I wlk to my car, I crush insects, break grass leaves, inhale oxygen which could be used by other living things. this is after eating a breakfast of dead plants and sometimes dead animals. Often I add to that a tall glass of white liquid produced by cows, and meant for consumption by baby cows. My main issue was mentioned on page 1: if you have an entire species become non-violent; the next bay that is born has a choice. be non-violent, and be a peace with everything, or choose to be violent (which is natural for humans), and take over. No one else is violent, so no one will stop you. the temptation to rule with such ease would be very hard to resist. the only thing which would prevent this is if the peacefull people were willing to simply put up with the violence of the person in question. allow him to kill, main, etc, without responding in any way. fully ignore the person through out their life. they would gain no power as long as no one recognised it. All they would have is the ability to hurt people who don't react when they are hurt. you can get no servents that way. so would a no-violent species continue to eveolve? yes, IMO. at the same rate? no, IMO. however, their culture will continue to evolve, and may evolve faster, thanks to the extra time available, now that war has ended. Technology advances may slow down significantly, though.