#### heyuhua

**Registered Senior Member**

The current Big Bang cosmology fails to rationally interpret the formation of galaxies and celestial body, logically scarred and battered, increasingly witnessing its pseudoscience nature. Yang Jianliang has fundamentally reformed Big Bang cosmology by modifying Einstein's gravitational field equation, improving the theoretical framework of general relativity, and greatly broadening its practical application. He has the modified field equations preserve conciseness and elegance of the original equation, automatically containing dark matter and dark energy effect, free from any additional assumptions. Previousrevisions centered on the needs of cosmological observations, optionallyadding or removing items, making reasoning lose scientific meaning and undermines covariance. What's more,it became impossible to return to Newton's law of gravitationin a ball symmetricalfeeble field, losing the premise as the gravitational field equation. The reformed cosmology theory has abandoned the concept of instantaneous creation of matter in Big Bang cosmology, accepting the continuous creation idea of the steady state cosmology theory, properly interpreting and connecting observations. According to the new theory, the space between galaxies is expanding, the galaxy itself is also similarly expanding, and the density of the universe remains unchanged, new substances are continuously generated in the sky, and the distance between the sun and the earth is increasing, so is the impact. The sun is getting brighter, and the earth is getting warmer. The increasing brightness of the sun is indeed a fact, but it is not interpretedby the current Big Bang Theory. According to the current Big Bang theory, the temperature of the universe and the sun is getting increasingly low. If it is the gravitational contraction that makes the sun brighter, then other celestial bodies should also be so, and it will inevitably lead to the entire universe. The temperature is getting higher and higher, contradicting the basic assumptions of Big Bang. The new theory properly interprets the recently observed gravitational anomalies within the solar system, such as the retreat movement of the moon after tidal considerations, the inconsistency between the changes in the length of day and tidal theory, and the expansion of the earth. The new theory further reveals that space-time and matter are inseparable. The continuous expansion of space-time is the continuous creation of space-time. It recognizes the continuous expansion of space-time must inevitably require the recognition of the continuous creation of materials otherwise it is to treat time and space and material independence. It belongs to absolute space-time perspective. The current Big Bang theory only recognizes that the continuous expansion of space and time does not recognize the continuous creation of materials, that is, the separation of space-time and material, and accepts the indefinite temperature of Big Bang. The singularity of infinite temperature is that materials can be independent without space. The necessity of existence is another case in which the separation of matter from space and time is a metaphysical absolute space-time view, which of course is wrong. In fact, if space can exist without material, then there will be no space for material existence. There will be no singularity in the universe where the infinite temperature is infinitely high, which is obviously not practical. The new theory also reveals the physical laws of straight time and space, that is, the various conservation laws that we usually use. These are all people's understandings in a short time and in a small range, and they must be revised accordingly when extended to large areas. Because the real space-time of the universe is curved and flat is only a partial approximation, the local understanding of the objective world must be approximate. To sum up, the cosmological theory after Yang Jianliang's transformation has roughly the following characteristics:

1) The cosmological scale factor becomes R(t) = Csinkt, the sine function of time, showing expansion and contraction of the universe cycle back and forth. The end of the previous round of contraction is the beginning of the next round of expansion. Although at this moment the cosmological scale factor is zero, that is, the volume of the universe is zero, the horizon after this is infinite. Since any measurement is done within a period of time, the universe looks infinite at all times. Since space can be changed from zero to infinity, the beginning of each round of expansion is veritable Big Bang. It can eliminate the difficulties of sight automatically without additional surges. Therefore, the transformed cosmology may still be called the Big Bang universe. But the mass and temperature of heavenly bodies and galaxies at the time of this Big Bang are zero, and the temperature of the entire universe is of course zero, and there is no singularity where the so-called infinite density of infinite temperature is infinite. Then, as the universe continues to expand, the celestial bodies and galaxies gradually increase and the temperature gradually rises. The universe we see today is gradually getting brighter from the darkness. The mass of the celestial body or galaxy changes with time to satisfy dm=3Hmdt, the radius change satisfies dr=Hrdt, the temperature change satisfies dT=1.2HTdt, H=dR/Rdt is a Hubble parameter that changes with time, according to its mass and radius today. Determining changes in quality and radius in the past and in the future can also determine changes in temperature and brightness. For example, the Earth’s temperature was minus 40℃ 2.7 billion years ago, the pressure was halved, and the brightness of the sun was 10% today. Today, it is the key to understanding the past and knowing the future. The current universe is in the expansion phase of the most recent cycle. The galaxy or celestial body is increasing, the temperature is getting increasingly high, and the sky is getting increasinglybright.

2) The modified field equation has a negative solution to the pressure P in the celestial body, similar to the negative value of density, automatically providing the thermodynamic mechanism for the continuous generation of matter in the celestial body, ie dm+Pdv=0, indicating that the celestial body expands with the universe. The quality of expansion is also increasing, and the increase in the mass of celestial body can be seen as the results of space-time expansion, consistent with the law of energy saving. For the current earth, the quality increases by 1.2 billion tons a year and the radius expands by 0.5 millimeter. Coal and oil are generated on an equal footing with earth and stone, and they are constantly generated and increasing energy can be used in the center of the earth. Due to space-time expansion, the current distance between sun and the earth is increased by about 10 meters a year, and the distance between the moon and the earth is increased by 2.7 centimeters in a year. It is just to consider the extra retreat distance of the moon after the tide. The observation distance of the moon's retreat is 4 centimeters. Because this negative pressure has the combined effect of stress and dark matter and dark energy, field equations are used to reduce 2 cosmological parameters in the universe, making the reasoning results more definite and reliable.

Interested readers who fully understand the details can refer to Yang Jianliang’s papers“

*Modification of gravitational field equation and rational solution to cosmological puzzle”,*“

*Modification of Field Equation and Return of Continuous Creation - Galaxies Form from Gradual Growth Instead of Gather of Existent Matter”*, Correction of standard model in view of improved gravity equation”, Chinese "

*Based on field equation modification the new stable cosmology - and approved the Big Bang cosmology*,

*Consider the space-time expansion of the heart movement*,

*The galaxy is gradually growing rather than the material accumulation after the Big Bang*.