Hello there. I'm a beginner in computer sciences, and would like some information about Windows/Dos please. This series of essays contains several contradictions. In some places in these essays the author says Windows is not Dos, that Dos is run as an add-on under Windows. But then in some places he says Windows runs on top of Dos. In some places he says there is a core of Dos. In other places he says the Win9x is not an integrated OS but rather just a huge bunch of separate chunks of software almost working together. When the dude talks about using simple Dos code to crash all of Windows, it seems he is actually referring to the flooding of an area of ram used by all programmes on such systems, which simply means he is choking that global ram area; it doesn't mean Dos runs Windows. But on the other hand he still doesn't offer much clear evidence one way or the other. http://www.oreilly.com/centers/windows/brochure/index.html So, what can people tell me about this? Is the core of Windows 9x Dos? Was Win 9x written new but with Dos material added in for backwards compatability?