Widespread misconceptions about cosmic expansion First I will cover the current state of affairs, and then I’ll clear up some misconceptions that are held even by cosmologists. Cosmic expansion is defined as all of the distant galaxies receding from one another. In the leading cosmological model, space itself expands, and this is the cause of cosmic expansion. In the expanding space paradigm (hereafter just “the paradigm”), the big bang was an explosion of space in matter & energy, rather than an explosion of matter & energy in space, and the explosion continues to this day, with new space being created every moment. A common question is, if space is expanding, do our bodies expand since they contain space? The common answer is, no, because we’re gravitationally bound, which hardly answers the question. The full answer is that gravity and other binding forces easily overpower the expanding space on such a small scale. The paradigm does apply to our bodies, even on an atomic scale, and under certain hypothetical scenarios could rip our bodies apart, including even the atoms. At this point it’s good to emphasize that we’re talking about a paradigm that has not been definitively experimentally confirmed. It is just a model for explaining what we observe. One may wonder why cosmic expansion cannot be due simply to movement of the galaxies relative to one another. Why is the paradigm needed to explain cosmic expansion? Well, first of all, the paradigm allows for the concept of the galaxies moving relative to one another, so to avoid confusion we should be clear that we’re talking about so-called peculiar movement, which is movement relative to fixed points within the expanding space (imagine movement relative to intersections on an expanding grid), or movement in the absence of the paradigm. So we ask, why can’t cosmic expansion be caused by peculiar movement alone? Some answers may jump to mind: because then special relativity (SR) would be violated when two objects sufficiently far apart from each other recede from each other faster than c, the speed of light. Or you might think that the increasing volume of space between objects is explainable only by space itself expanding. Or you might think that peculiar movement alone results in a universe that has a center and an edge. Cosmologists feel that the paradigm is necessary, for whatever reason. Now I will dispel the notion that cosmic expansion cannot be caused by peculiar movement alone; that is, I will show that cosmic expansion can be caused by peculiar movement alone, with no ill effects. This will show that the paradigm is superfluous. Let an infinitely large universe have no method by which space itself expands or contracts—the paradigm doesn’t apply to this universe. Any two galaxies in this universe can recede from each other independently of the other galaxies. Then nothing prevents every two galaxies from receding from each other, which is the same as all of the galaxies receding from one another. SR (a single application of which can apply to an indefinitely large region in such a paradigm-less universe) ensures that every two galaxies recede from each other slower than c, even if every galaxy recedes from its adjacent neighbors at a relativistic velocity. No cosmic center or cosmic edge forms when any two galaxies recede from each other. Then neither do these form when every two galaxies recede from each another. Rather, from any vantage point galaxies recede at c in the limit at a limit of infinite distance. Now there is no longer a need for the paradigm. Our cosmological model can be streamlined. There is no longer a need for the "peculiar" qualifier for movement. To emphasize a key difference between cosmic expansion caused by expanding space (as described by the paradigm) versus caused by peculiar movement alone: With the paradigm, a sufficiently long straight thread floating in deep space is stretched and eventually breaks. Without the paradigm, the thread does not stretch regardless of its length.