I've extracted this straight from Wikipedia, as I didn't want to paraphrase, and miss any wording that will be helpful for this discussion. According to the Stoics, the Universe is a material, reasoning substance, known as God or Nature, which the Stoics divided into two classes, the active and the passive. The passive substance is matter, which "lies sluggish, a substance ready for any use, but sure to remain unemployed if no one sets it in motion". The active substance, which can be called Fate or Universal Reason (Logos), is an intelligent aether or primordial fire, which acts on the passive matter: The universe itself is God and the universal outpouring of its soul; it is this same world's guiding principle, operating in mind and reason, together with the common nature of things and the totality that embraces all existence; then the foreordained might and necessity of the future; then fire and the principle of aether; then those elements whose natural state is one of flux and transition, such as water, earth, and air; then the sun, the moon, the stars; and the universal existence in which all things are contained. — Chrysippus, in Cicero, De Natura Deorum, i. 39 Everything is subject to the laws of Fate, for the Universe acts according to its own nature, and the nature of the passive matter it governs. The souls of humans and animals are emanations from this primordial Fire, and are, likewise, subject to Fate: Constantly regard the universe as one living being, having one substance and one soul; and observe how all things have reference to one perception, the perception of this one living being; and how all things act with one movement; and how all things are the cooperating causes of all things that exist; observe too the continuous spinning of the thread and the structure of the web. — Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, iv. 40 (end of wikipedia info) I have a friend who is obsessed with researching the stoics. He believes that Stoicism would make the perfect partner for science, in terms of two schools of thought, that don't contradict one another. But, Primordial Fire? The Universe is God? Fate? Sounds like it most certainly clashes with science and its principles. What are your thoughts?