good points! 1) referring to the ALMA thread in alternate: Not only does the outside of the universe, in the model, the future not move any resistance, but it might be drawing the expansion out into it. 2a) the ALMA Expanding Sphere Membrane model shows that the pre-BB condition (timespace and energytime) still surround the universe, and expansion into it, could consist of a BB stretched into >80 billion light years circumference/surface. Not likely though, because the BB is theorized to be a one- off, BIG event. 2b) perhaps more mass is converted to energy, to supply a continuing surplus to accelerate? like putting the pedal to the metal , emptying the tank to accelerate?