Types of marriages -Hindu

Discussion in 'Eastern Philosophy' started by rcscwc, Sep 20, 2010.

  1. rcscwc Registered Senior Member

    Types of marriages -Hindu

    Manu's Code Chapter-III
    27. The gift of a daughter, after decking her (with costly garments) and honouring (her by presents of jewels), to a man learned in the Veda and of good conduct, whom (the father) himself invites, is called the Brahma rite.

    28. The gift of a daughter who has been decked with ornaments, to a priest who duly officiates at a sacrifice, during the course of its performance, they call the Daiva rite.

    29. When (the father) gives away his daughter according to the rule, after receiving from the bridegroom, for (the fulfillment of) the sacred law, a cow and a bull or two pairs, that is named the Arsha rite.

    30. The gift of a daughter (by her father) after he has addressed (the couple) with the text, 'May both of you perform together your duties,' and has shown honour (to the bridegroom), is called in the Smriti the Pragapatya rite.

    31. When (the bridegroom) receives a maiden, after having given as much wealth as he can afford, to the kinsmen and to the bride herself, according to his own will, that is called the Asura rite.

    Romantic pairing.
    32. The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover one must know (to be) the Gandharva rite, which springs from desire and has sexual intercourse for its purpose.

    Abominable types
    33. The forcible abduction of a maiden from her home, while she cries out and weeps, after (her kinsmen) have been slain or wounded and (their houses) broken open, is called the Rakshasa rite.

    34. When (a man) by stealth seduces a girl who is sleeping, intoxicated, or disordered in intellect, that is the eighth, the most base and sinful rite of the Pisakas.

    The first four are blameless, and last four are blamable, and righteous man is to shun them. They lead to hell. A fair warning. he virtues and pitfalls too are enumerated. Last two were banned in quite olden times are NOW legally banned. Muslim marriage is close to type V. Type VI was banned, but due to doubts about its legality in the absence of witnesses it was frowned upon. Live in like that.

    35. The gift of daughters [type I] among Brahmanas is most approved, (if it is preceded) by (a libation of) water; .....

    39. From the four marriages, (enumerated) successively, which begin with the Brahma rite spring sons, radiant with knowledge of the Veda and honoured by the Sishtas (good men). [Merit is gradually reduced].
    40. Endowed with the qualities of beauty and goodness, possessing wealth and fame, obtaining as many enjoyments as they desire and being most righteous, they will live a hundred years.
    Types V to VIII

    41. But from the remaining (four) blamable marriages spring sons who are cruel and speakers of untruth, who hate the Veda and the sacred law.
    Note: In later texts type VI [romantic] too is considered valid to the extent that couple were exempted from formal rites. Name of India is Bharat, after the man born of such a union. Hence elevated [for all. No special consideration for any one]. This was later on sanctified by a rite called [nearly] Selection Of a Groom By Her.

    During medieval periods this mode became extinct and blamable. But since 1960's it has resurfaced. Many romantic pairings occur these days, mostly solemnized as Type-I.

    Laws of succession, inheritance, divorce etc are governed by Hindu Civil Code. In case a couple wants to have a court marriage, whatever be the faith of either, they are governed by Special Marriage act.

    Now you might raise a question what type of marriage is in vogue. All ceremonies are performed by Type-I even if it is a romantic pairing by mutual consent of the boy and girl. Such an arrangement can be called Assisted Wedding [topic of another thread].

Share This Page