Theoretical quark fusion found to be more powerful than hydrogen fusion

Discussion in 'General Science & Technology' started by paddoboy, Nov 6, 2017.

  1. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    Theoretical quark fusion found to be more powerful than hydrogen fusion
    November 6, 2017 by Bob Yirka report
    Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature24289" style="color: rgb(49, 61, 87); outline: none 0px; cursor: zoom-in; font-weight: 700;">

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    Schematic depiction of quark-level exothermic fusion reactions ΛQΛQ′ → ΞQQ′N, where Q,Q′ ∈ {b, c}. Credit: (c) Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature24289
    (Phys.org)—A pair of researchers with Tel Aviv University and the University of Chicago has found evidence suggesting that fusing quarks can release much more energy than anyone thought. In their paper published in the journal Nature, Marek Karliner and Jonathan Rosner describe their theories surrounding the amount of energy involved when various types of quarks are fused together.

    To learn more about subatomic particles, researchers at the Large Hadron Collider cause atoms to move at high speeds and then smash them into one another. Doing so forces the component parts of the atoms to be disassociated from one another allowing each to be studied. Those components, scientists have found, are called quarks. Prior research has also shown that when atoms in the collider smash into each other, sometimes the pieces that come apart collide with other parts, fusing them into particles called baryons.

    Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-11-theoretical-quark-fusion-powerful-hydrogen.html#jCp
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    https://www.nature.com/articles/nature24289

    Quark-level analogue of nuclear fusion with doubly heavy baryons:

    Abstract
    The essence of nuclear fusion is that energy can be released by the rearrangement of nucleons between the initial- and final-state nuclei. The recent discovery1 of the first doubly charmed baryon

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    , which contains two charm quarks (c) and one up quark (u) and has a mass of about 3,621 megaelectronvolts (MeV) (the mass of the proton is 938 MeV) also revealed a large binding energy of about 130 MeV between the two charm quarks. Here we report that this strong binding enables a quark-rearrangement, exothermic reaction in which two heavy baryons (Λc) undergo fusion to produce the doubly charmed baryon

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    and a neutron n (

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    ), resulting in an energy release of 12 MeV. This reaction is a quark-level analogue of the deuterium–tritium nuclear fusion reaction (DT → 4He n). The much larger binding energy (approximately 280 MeV) between two bottom quarks (b) causes the analogous reaction with bottom quarks (

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    ) to have a much larger energy release of about 138 MeV. We suggest some experimental setups in which the highly exothermic nature of the fusion of two heavy-quark baryons might manifest itself. At present, however, the very short lifetimes of the heavy bottom and charm quarks preclude any practical applications of such reactions.


     
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  3. mathman Valued Senior Member

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    Interesting theory. Completely impractical, since the incoming Baryons require a lot of energy to create and the lifetimes are extremely short.
     
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  5. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    Which is why I highlighted the last sentence in the Abstract.

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  7. RajeshTrivedi Valued Senior Member

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    In the lab here such conditions are created by collisions, but in nature it gets created by gravitational compaction.

    Our present insistence with Quark Gluon plasma requires revisit. There is nothing like it. Gluons are proposed as massless particles, so there is no question of QG plasma formation. I had proposed earlier also ('Nature' rejected my paper) that nothing can have higher density than quarks, due to release of energy when quarks are brought closer. Black Holes singularities cannot form because a stage would come when quarks (of a nucleon) will be compressed beyond their equilibrium state and thats where release of energy would start, preventing the formation of BH. Asymptotic Freedom is the best clue to readjust the Physics. AF and BH they do not go together.
     
  8. RajeshTrivedi Valued Senior Member

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  9. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quark–gluon_plasma
    A quark–gluon plasma(QGP) or quark soup[2] is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density. This state is thought to consist of asymptotically freestrong-interactingquarks and gluons, which are ordinarily confined by color confinement inside atomic nuclei or other hadrons. This is in analogy with the conventional plasma where nuclei and electrons, confined inside atoms by electrostatic forces at ambient conditions, can move freely. Artificial quark matter, which has been produced at Brookhaven National Laboratory’sRelativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN's Large Hadron Collider, can only be produced in minute quantities and is unstable and impossible to contain, and will radioactively decay within a fraction of a second into stable particles through hadronization; the produced hadrons or their decay products and gamma rays can then be detected. In the quark matter phase diagram, QGP is placed in the high-temperature, high-density regime, whereas ordinary matter is a cold and rarefied mixture of nuclei and vacuum, and the hypothetical quark stars would consist of relatively cold, but dense quark matter. It is believed that up to a few milliseconds after the Big Bang, known as the quark epoch, the Universe was in a quark–gluon plasma state.
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    Most cosmologists believe that the singularity of infinite quantities does not exist anyway. But a singularity as defined by the limitations of our laws of physics and GR would obviously exist, as GR within its domain says when the Schwarzchild radius is reached, further collapse is compulsory. BHs though exist according to all data.
     

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