The Emergence of Building Blocks of Life on Earth:

Discussion in 'Biology & Genetics' started by paddoboy, Aug 13, 2019.

  1. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

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    https://phys.org/news/2019-08-cells-emerged-blocks-proteins-stabilized.html

    First cells may have emerged because building blocks of proteins stabilized membranes:

    Life on Earth arose about 4 billion years ago when the first cells formed within a primordial soup of complex, carbon-rich chemical compounds.

    These cells faced a chemical conundrum. They needed particular ions from the soup in order to perform basic functions. But those charged ions would have disrupted the simple membranes that encapsulated the cells.

    A team of researchers at the University of Washington has solved this puzzle using only molecules that would have been present on the early Earth. Using cell-sized, fluid-filled compartments surrounded by membranes made of fatty acid molecules, the team discovered that amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, can stabilize membranes against magnesium ions. Their results set the stage for the first cells to encode their genetic information in RNA, a molecule related to DNA that requires magnesium for its production, while maintaining the stability of the membrane.

    The findings, published the week of Aug. 12 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, go beyond explaining how amino acids could have stabilized membranes in unfavorable environments. They also demonstrate how the individual building blocks of cellular structures—membranes, proteins and RNA—could have co-localized within watery environments on the ancient Earth.

    more at link......

    the paper:

    https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/08/06/1900275116

     
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  3. pluto2 Registered Senior Member

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    The fact is that scientists are becoming way too arrogant.

    There are many things we don't know and may also never know about the origin of life or about how the human body really works yet many scientists are becoming way too proud and arrogant to admit that.
     
    Last edited: Sep 22, 2019
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  5. Write4U Valued Senior Member

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    There are many things we don't fully understand, but are available for practical applications.

    I would say that it is arrogant to say that, "because we don't know the exact process, it cannot have a natural origin" and then assign some supernatural causality to the phenomenon. That's not just arrogant, it's duplicitous.

    But, we have a very good idea how and what was required for some things to happen. The one great obstacle is finding a chronology in the 13.7 billion years since the beginning of the evolution of bio-chemicals which are used in the "building blocks of life".

    We know on earth the origins of life it must have occurred some 3.5 billiom years ago, due to the "known" necessary bio-chemicals and the chemistry which might have existed or evolved during the various stages of the earth's global climate patterns. Conditions and events which shaped our bio-chemical world and were permittive of certain creative cellular expressions.

    The emergence of "motility" in energy consuming cells. The flagella is no more than a evolved chemically dynamic system which has a survival advantage of "propulsion" (hunting).

    The emergence of "living" properties were nothing but evolutionary refinements of bio-chemical actions. i.e. light sensitive chemical sensory patches evolved into complex eyes.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_the_eye

    Note that every stage of the eye is a seperate functional organ, all the way back to the formation of reactive light sensitive chemicals. There is no "irreducible complexity"!

    Finally, we know just about every bio-chemical which make up our physical pattern. And it is noteworthy that all bio-chemical compounds consist of more fundamentally pure chemicals. We know this is the pool from which bio-chemicals were formed and evolved into greater and greater chemical complexity, including the building of "microtubules" which make up the cytoskeleton of living things. And also act as "information processors", a form of quantum computing. Human are biological computers, just as the single celled paramecium is a very simple biological computer.

    What sets human and other (sensory) sentient organisms apart from other physical objects is the interactive abilities of the chemicals which are being used in the formation of bio-chemical compounds used in organisms where sensory abilities provide a survival advantage.

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    by
    Regina Bailey, Updated August 21, 2019
    https://www.thoughtco.com/cytoplasm-defined-373301

    Do read the link, it has awesome information.

    Cytoplasm Functions

    • The cytoplasm functions to support and suspend organelles and cellular molecules.
    • Many cellular processes also occur in the cytoplasm, such as protein synthesis, the first stage of cellular respiration (known as glycolysis), mitosis, and meiosis.
    • The cytoplasm helps to move materials, such as hormones, around the cell and also dissolves cellular waste.
     
    Last edited: Sep 23, 2019
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  7. DaveC426913 Valued Senior Member

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    Which scientists?
    In what way are these particular scientists being arrogant?
    What scientist has ever tried to claim we know everything about the origin of life? I'd like to talk to him.

    Do you have anything to back this up? Or do you have have this "feeling" about the arrogance of scientists?
     
  8. Xelasnave.1947 Valued Senior Member

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    6,177
    Generalisations never work. The scientist that I have met suffer from a timid personality and perhaps the opposite of arrogant as you could find. I suggest you are frustrated that you live in a world where we do not yet have all the answers. Just chill and be happy we know more than your cat...do you have a cat..if not get one.
    But somehow they met the challenge and the rest is history..thanks for your post ..hope you are well.
    Alex
     
  9. Write4U Valued Senior Member

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    From the 2 trillion, quadrillion, quadrillion, quadrillion of chemical interactions in the past 3.5 billion years, natural selection will fail all but a few mutated or new chemical patterns. But that is all that's required. One in a quadrillion random actions, will produce an enormous base of many bio-chemical variations.

    Example: while all mammals have red blood plasma (iron based), hemoglobin, Octopi, Squid, Cuttlefish and several other deep sea dwellers have adopted bluegreen (copper based) blood plasma due to environmental pressures. I think it is a left-over from the Prokaryotic epoch.

    Copper is one of the several types of deep sea black and white smokers ingredients.
    And this in depth .pdf article;
    https://www.amnh.org/learn/pd/earth/pdf/black_smokers_incubators.pdf

    To me this suggests that there may have been more than one place and time where some form of primitive life emerged or acquired new capabilities due to simple but new and more complex chemical reactions better adapted to the ecosystem.

    IMO, the change from Prokaryotic life to Eukaryotic life is witness to the evolutionary process in response to atmospheric conditions.
    A complete biological makeover of basic functions, due to Climate Change!
     
    Last edited: Sep 23, 2019
  10. spidergoat Liddle' Dick Tater Valued Senior Member

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    It's not a fact one must admit.
     
  11. Write4U Valued Senior Member

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    Au contraire, what you call arrogance is "growing confidence" in the constant acquisition of knowledge, revealing more and more fundamental "values and functions", leading to greater understanding of "life" and "living things".

    How long ago did we not even imagine that bacteria talk to each other? They do with a very simple language using chemical properties as "messengers", the words which trigger a specific chemical reaction in bacteria.

    Today we know bacteria communicate via "quorum sensing". This knowledge allows us to devise chemical words that can either interfere with or stimulate bacterial activity.

    The practical use of that method, is the avoidance of killing bacteria and triggering natural selection for resistance. It's much easier to make bacteria deaf and harmless, without killing them.
    OTOH, informational stimulation of beneficial bacteria assist in the stability of beneficial bacterial functions.
    Pro-biotics bring beneficial (good news) messages to the bacteria in our digestive system!

    btw. The human biome consists of 10% human cells and 90% bacterial cells. Not too long ago we didn't know that either. Seems important to acquire knowledge in this area.

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    Last edited: Sep 25, 2019
  12. Write4U Valued Senior Member

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    This is a very intertesting site;
    How do they do that.......

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    https://www.gutlove.com/
     
    Last edited: Sep 25, 2019
  13. Michael 345 New year. PRESENT is 69 years old Valued Senior Member

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    WhatsApp or in China WeChat?

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  14. Michael 345 New year. PRESENT is 69 years old Valued Senior Member

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    More seriously the - they communicate to the host to ingest nutrients again - is there in there possible help for anorexia

    Flood the gut with these guys and also run tests checking the patients mental view of themselves ie do the good guys affect the chemistry of the brain?

    Not only to get the brain to stuff the body with more food but be accepting of a larger body image

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  15. Write4U Valued Senior Member

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    Yes, they communicate chemically and it is a very effective and reliable method of communication. We have been scratching the surface for a long time, but now we know and can learn how to induce or prevent "quorum sensing".

    When we learn to speak the chemical language we can induce bacteria to react or not to react, depending on the desired bacterial response.
    The beauty is that we do not need to breed bacteria, they duplicate all by themselves for as long as we can prevent or induce them to become active when we desire it.

    We can "domesticate" bacteria......

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    We can turn you into a bacteria farm for a good time.....

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  16. Michael 345 New year. PRESENT is 69 years old Valued Senior Member

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    Go get the anorexics at one end and overweight at the other

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