I shall spin this thread off from a very interesting discussion from the Art/Culture linguistics thread titled "European and East Asian languages" We see that etymologically, Chinese has a very large number of words that form the basis of numerous Japanese words. Estimates range that Chinese loanwords make up 60-70% of the Japanese lexicon, some pronounced in the native Japanese way, and others directly off the Chinese pronunciation. Unlucky for me, I cannot recognize those which have native pronunciation, as they require understanding of the written Chinese, which I do not have. But then again, I have managed to identify quite a few Chinese cognates from the Japanese spoken in numerous anime. This is from my rudimentary understanding of spoken Mandarin. I have copied what I thought of then in the Art/Culture thread, with translations: jing tsa - ke satsu (police) gong yuen - gon yen (park) du su guan - to sho kan (library) du - doku (poison) dao - to (knife, sword) jiao zi - gyo za (dumpling) han zi - kanji (Kanji) gan jue - kanji (reckoning) an xin - an shin (assured/relaxed) dan xin - shin pai (worry) huo - ho (fire) sui - sui (water) zhong guo - chu goku (China) han guo - kan koku? (Korea) szepuan - nippon - riben - nihon (Japan) In the meantime, I've come up with a few more: xin zhang - shin zo (heart attack) di zhen - di zhe (earthquake) long - ryuu (dragon) tien - ten (heaven, sky) guo - go (country, gen. form) ping guo - rin go (apple) si - shi (death) hao - ha (yes, affirmative) These are the words that are easiest for me to understand. I encourage people to contribute to the list, so I can see more cognates as well. In the meantime, my intermediate understanding of Spanish has led to expanding upon the Latinate forms of English, so I can better understand whether or not something is French or Latin in origin. These are exceptions to direct borrowings from Spanish, ie cafeteria, alligator. for ex, I predicted the existence of the word antipathetic in English from Sp. antipatico, before I learned the validity of it as an adjective of antipathy. A "natatorium" is a swimming pool. Sp. nadar, to swim. Which one is from Latin? autumn or fall? Besides the obvious clues, from Sp. otono we see that it's autumn. An abogado, a lawyer, is one who advocates. An hombre de negocios, a businessman, is a man of negotiations. If you're sick, or enfermo, you go to an infirmary. You dance, bailar, in a ball. If you do not like something, no me gusta, then it does not appeal to your taste, or the gustatory system. There are thousands of others, for both Sino-Japanese and Latin-English.