Star exploded, survived, and exploded again:

Discussion in 'Astronomy, Exobiology, & Cosmology' started by paddoboy, Nov 9, 2017.

  1. paddoboy Valued Senior Member

    No probs re the provisional acceptance of your maths, but again you fail to heed the gist of that provisional acceptance thus "I do not know, but irrespective, it does nothing to resolve anything about any BH, and the extensions you fabricate makes absolutely no sense, considering the evidence we have that you ignore
    In fact your whole summary is no where near detailed enough and if you do decide to "do the right thing" I doubt very much if it will turn any heads".
    Nothing wrong in interest in cosmology, I'll certainly vouch for that: But it needs to be approached without any baggage. I mean really, the anti GR people trying to invalidate GR over the years on this forum, is staggering and laughable in the false pretentious attitude most seem to have...anyway ........
    Obviously you are in error, but hey, havn't you been already told this by "experts" over at, you know where? Simply put, once inside the EH, all paths lead to the singularity.
    And again, you have a proper procedure for professional peer review.
    As it seems you have accepted somewhat my claim, re you are ignoring current evidence for BH's, let me say that, while we can not be certain of the nature of BH's inside the EH or even at it, we can be near certain they do exist.
    And while according to QCD, the separation of quarks sees an increase in the strong force, [akin to stretching a rubber band] that energy would go into creating a quark anti quark pair, thereby taking us back to square one...that is no energy to prevent BH from forming as you say. Whether quarks can be separated or not is neither here nor there, the point is that the BH obviously is formed according to latest observational evidence.
    If what I said above is confusing, perhaps the following answers may explain better....
  2. Google AdSense Guest Advertisement

    to hide all adverts.
  3. paddoboy Valued Senior Member


    Ultimately the reason is that the strong force carriers - the gluons - have colour charge and thus interact with each other. Electromagnetic force carriers - the photons ale electrically neutral and therefore they don’t interact with each other directly. In the language of Feynman diagrams, the only vertex allowed in electromagnetic interaction is one with two charged particles and one photon. In strong interaction you may have two types of vertices: two quarks and a gluon and three gluons.

    This leads to a situation that a virtual gluon exchanged between two quarks can create additional virtual gluons, and the larger the distance between particles, the more gluons appear. Gluons are massless, so creation of additional soft virtual gluons is “free”. The potential energy of quark-quark interaction grows therefore to infinity as you try to pull them apart. Actually it can’t really grow to infinity, as at some point the energy of the gluon field between two quarks will become high enough to produce a real quark-antiquark pair. This will “break the string” - now the strong force will act not between the two original quarks, but between an original and one from the newly created pair each.

    With photons you don’t have that effect of energy increasing to infinity, because a virtual photon can not create additional virtual photons - it would need to create additional charged particle-antiparticle pairs first. Charged particles are massive and thus their creation is suppressed if the energy of the virtual photon is low.

    For gravity - well, we don’t have a quantum theory of gravity, and one of the reasons is that gravitons should also in principle be self-interacting, as energy-momentum is the source of gravitational field. The situation with gravity is actually much worse than in QCD, and attempts to calculate the gravitational force between two particles using the standard perturbative methods of quantum field theory end in getting and infinity, that can’t be cancelled using methods that work for other interactions. But apparently the ability to create additional gravitons does not lead to potential energy of the interaction growing to infinity with increasing distance - possibly because the interaction strength between gravitons is proportional to their energies, and therefore soft gravitons interact very weakly and this effectively puts a limit on their “multiplication”.

    Strong nuclear force is a consequence of a volume of space affected by a gluon . The range effectiveness of a gluon is 10^-15 meter which would be the size of an atom nuclei of hydrogen (the range can vary a bit). This volume is subjected to what is called “confinement”.

    Inside that volume, the more you pull a quark toward that exterior limit, the more it is restrained to go farther. Finally, quarks cannot cross the limit around that volume of space and escape.

    We call it Strong nuclear force for that reason; but it could have a different cause than a somewhat “magical” force. The gluing effect of the gluon could simply be a topology impossible to come out from. Similar to a black hole horizon but not identical, mind you. When you think of the energy density in the environment of a proton it is very possible that it is a simple topology effect.
    I’m not a physicist but through my own studies, strong nuclear interactions do not get stronger by distance. The strong nuclear force is the strongest force in the known universe but it is very short range (a few protons width) and it falls like 1 over r^4 I believe. So the strongest long-range force in the universe is electromagnetism. What you may be thinking of is quarks. They always come in pairs. The more you pull them apart, the more energy you need to pull them even further. At a particular limit you give them so much energy that due to Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence (e=mc^2) the energy you provided spontaneously produces two new quarks to accompany the lone quarks you just tried to separate.
  4. Google AdSense Guest Advertisement

    to hide all adverts.

Share This Page