I have an observation and a question. How do male and female gamete cells divide their genes so there is minimal genetic redundancy within the offspring? For example, if I could clone a male and female, from one of their cells, each has the DNA needed to make, 2 eyes, 1 nose, 2 arms, etc. If we next look at their gamete cells, the DNA divides in half, but needs to do so in a way that will not result in 4 eyes, 2 noses or 4 arms within the offspring. The division of the DNA needs to be ordered for both the male and female, so we end up with only one set of genes for each of the above. We can end up with our mothers nose and father eyes, but not both our mother and fathers eyes (4). I can sort of see how the female gamete cells might do this since they extrude the extra DNA. But with male sperm cells, all the DNA is used. Does this means that half the sperm cannot merge, by default, via some membrane screening mechanism? If sperm attachment was random why not four eyes half the time?