Has anyone read the book 'the last 2 million years' ? It seems to suggest that when homo sapiens met neanderthals the main reason for the disappearance of neanderthals was the 2 sub-species mixing with eachother. The neanderthal appearance being bred out by sexual selection. However other neanderthal attributes seem to have stuck. Neanderthals invented religion and spirituality, believe it or not before humans came into contact with neanderthals we didn't bury our dead or show any sign of spirituality whatsoever. Maybe we just stole the idea off them, but I don't think so. We humans naturally seem to sway towards spirituality. Its more than just being convinced, its instinctually satisfying to those that exercise it, as though it is part of the human animal to behave this way. Perhaps those that don't, those who have no interest in religion at all, are throwbacks to the purebred humans. I think we can all attest to seeing throwbacks to the neanderthal phenotype, whats interesting is now such an insulting statement may have a basis in truth. You have to wonder what else there is, what other aspects of the humans we see around today are thanks to neanderthal influence. Chances are the purebred sapiens line wouldn't have become what it did today without neanderthal blood. It seems it was that mixture of subspecies that created this earth engulfing entity that we are a part of. Without religion we never would have made civilisations, and neanderthals weren't on that course either, they needed that extra innovative creativity from sapiens sapiens. The 2 subspecies seemed to 'compliment' eachother. This is done in dog breeding often. The fact we don't look like neanderthals now doesn't mean anything, the neanderthal appearance was just selectively removed from the line, but other neanderthal traits were selected for and remained. In dog breeding a shorthaired dog might be crossed with a longhaired dog to get the good sense of smell from the longhaired dog, but eventually they'd breed the line back to looking exactly like the original shorthaired dog only difference being it has a better sense of smell. This seems to be what happened with humans and neanderthals, and its hard to say which part of us is from which ancestor. Appearance is definately from the sapiens subspecies, but other than that we don't know. MAYBE neanderthals were way smarter than homo-sapiens, they did have bigger brains, maybe sapiens were just physically attractive idiots and neanderthals used their advanced brains to trick them into putting out We assume the history of the great homo-sapiens dominating the confused and inferior neanderthal and rendering him extinct, but maybe we ARE neanderthals, only draped in human skin.