# Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prizes

Discussion in 'Science & Society' started by Radical, Sep 2, 2001.

Messages:
151
Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Physics
Year Nobel Laureate Country of birth
1997 Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light" Algeria
1996 Lee, David M.
"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3" USA
1996 Osheroff, Douglas D.
"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3" USA
1995 Perl, Martin L.
"for the discovery of the tau lepton " Russia
1995 Reines, Frederick
"for the detection of the neutrino" USA
1992 Charpak, Georges
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber" Poland
1990 Friedman, Jerome I.
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics" USA
1988 Lederman, Leon M.
"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino" USA
1988 Schwartz, Melvin
"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino" USA
1988 Steinberger, Jack
"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino" Germany
1979 Weinberg, Steven
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including inter alia the prediction of the weak neutral current" USA
1978 Kapitsa, Pyotr Leonidovich
"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics" Russia
1978 Penzias, Arno A.
"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation" Germany
1976 Richter, Burton
"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind" USA
1975 Mottelson, Ben
"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection" USA
1973 Josephson, Brian D.
"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects" UK
1971 Gabor, Dennis
"for his invention and development of the holographic method" Hungary
1969 Gell-Mann, Murray
"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions" USA
1967 Bethe, Hans Albrecht
"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars" USA
1965 Feynman, Richard P.
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles" USA
1965 Schwinger, Julian
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles" USA
1962 Landau, Lev Davidovich
"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium" Uzbekistan
"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons" USA
1960 Glaser, Donald A.
"for the invention of the bubble chamber" USA
1959 Segre, Emilio Gino
"for their discovery of the antiproton" Italy
1954 Born, Max
"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"
1952 Bloch, Felix
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith" Switzerland
1944 Rabi, Isidor Isaac
"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei" Austria
1943 Stern, Otto
"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton" Germany
1925 Franck, James
"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom" Germany
1925 Hertz, Gustav
"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom" Germany
1922 Bohr, Niels
"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them" Denmark
1921 Einstein, Albert
"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect" Germany
1908 Lippmann, Gabriel
"for his method of reproducing colors photographically based on the phenomenon of interference" Luxembourg
1907 Michelson, Albert Abraham
"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and meteorological investigations carried out with their aid" Poland

Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Economics
Year Nobel Laureate Country of birth
1994 Harsanyi, John C.
"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games" Hungary
1993 Fogel, Robert W.
"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change" USA
1992 Becker, Gary S.
"for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behavior and interaction, including nonmarket behavior" USA
1990 Markowitz, Harry M.
"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics" USA
1987 Solow, Robert M.
"for his contributions to the theory of economic growth" USA
1985 Modigliani, Franco
"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets" Italy
1980 Klein, Lawrence R.
"for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies" USA
1978 Simon, Herbert A.
"for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations" USA
1976 Friedman, Milton
"for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy" USA
1975 Kantorovich, Leonid Vitaliyevich
"for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources" Russia
1972 Arrow, Kenneth J.
"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory" USA
1971 Kuznets, Simon
"for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development" USA
1970 Samuelson, Paul A.
"for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science" USA

Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Year Nobel Laureate Country of birth
1998 Kohn, Walter
"for his development of the density-functional theory" Austria
1992 Marcus, Rudolph A.
"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems" Canada
1989 Altman, Sidney
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA" Canada
1985 Hauptman, Herbert A.
"for their development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures" USA
1985 Karle, Jerome
"for their development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures" USA
1982 Klug, Sir Aaron
"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes" Lithuania
1981 Hoffmann, Roald
"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions" Poland
1980 Berg, Paul
"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA" USA
1980 Gilbert, Walter
"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids" USA
1979 Brown, Herbert C.
"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis" Ukraine
1972 Stein, William Howard
"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active center of the ribonuclease molecule" USA
1962 Perutz, Max Ferdinand
"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins" Austria
1961 Calvin, Melvin
"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants" USA
1918 Haber, Fritz
"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements" Germany
1915 Willstatter, Richard Martin
"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll" Germany
1910 Wallach, Otto
"for his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds" Germany

Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Biomedical Sciences
Year Nobel Laureate Country of birth
2000 Kandel, Eric R.
"signal transduction in the nervous system" Austria
1998 Furchgott, Robert F.
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system" USA
1997 Prusiner, Stanley B.
"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection" USA
1994 Gilman, Alfred G.
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells" USA
1994 Rodbell, Martin
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells" USA
1989 Varmus, Harold E.
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes" USA
1988 Elion, Gertrude B.
"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment" USA
1986 Cohen, Stanley
"for their discoveries of growth factors" USA
1986 Levi-Montalcini, Rita
"for their discoveries of growth factors" Italy
1985 Goldstein, Joseph L.
"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism" USA
1984 Milstein, Cesar
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies" Argentina
1980 Benacerraf, Baruj
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions" Venezuela
1978 Nathans, Daniel
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics" USA
1977 Schally, Andrew V.
"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain" Poland
1977 Yalow, Rosalyn
"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones" USA
1976 Blumberg, Baruch S.
"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases" USA
1975 Baltimore, David
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell" USA
1975 Temin, Howard Martin
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell" USA
1972 Edelman, Gerald M.
"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies" USA
1970 Axelrod, Julius
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation" USA
1970 Katz, Sir Bernard
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation" Germany
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses" Italy
1968 Nirenberg, Marshall W.
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis" USA
1967 Wald, George
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye" USA
1965 Jacob, Francois
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis" France
1965 Lwoff, Andre
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis" France
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism" Germany
1959 Kornberg, Arthur
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid" USA
1958 Lederberg, Joshua
"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria" USA
"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle" Germany
1953 Lipmann, Fritz Albert
"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism" Germany
1952 Waksman, Selman Abraham
"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis" Russia
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects" Poland
1946 Muller, Hermann Joseph
"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation" USA
1945 Chain, Sir Ernst Boris
"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases" UK
1944 Erlanger, Joseph
"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibers" USA
1936 Loewi, Otto
"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses" Austria
1931 Warburg, Otto Heinrich
"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme" Germany
1930 Landsteiner, Karl
"for his discovery of human blood groups" Austria
1922 Meyerhof, Otto Fritz
"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle" Germany
1914 Barany, Robert
"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus" Austria
1908 Ehrlich, Paul
"for their work on immunity" Germany
1908 Mechnikov, Elie
"for their work on immunity" Russia

3. ### GRO$$Registered Senior Member Messages: 304 I dont see your point... Im sorry, i think i missed your point. Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! Explain please Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! 4. ### Google AdSenseGuest Advertisement to hide all adverts. 5. ### XerxesasdfghjklValued Senior Member Messages: 3,830 I think hes trying to explain how jews are the chosen people to lead the world. Thats 20 some percent of nobel prizes awarded to only o.4% of the worlds population which is way disproportionate. There are lots of jews who are really smart, take Einstein for example. Have you known any during your school years. I'll admit there are lots of morons and I have met them but there are many more...heres another one I just thought of Isaac Assimov. 6. ### Google AdSenseGuest Advertisement to hide all adverts. 7. ### GRO$$Registered Senior Member

Messages:
304
Hehe...

I dont like being racist or religionist or anything like that in ANY way

Personally, I have never been able to tell a Jewish name from a non-Jewish one and have been very proud of that

Yes, some Jews are smart, some are morons. Just like any group of poeple. The reason Jews are more succesfull that others (and why they are sometimes hated) is because they help each other out (my opinion). Jewish people help other Jewish people before they help non-Jewish people. Again, I go against my principles by saying this because simply put, you cannot say something that will be true about ALL Jews... There will allways be exceptions

In my opinion, if noone talks about ANY type of racism or does not make ANY generalisations, after several generations, racism will just be forgotten... no?

8. ### orthogonalRegistered Senior Member

Messages:
579
The (admittedly) few Jewish families I've had contact with in my life have all had one striking thing in common. The parents, at least from my small sampling, appear to be uniformly manic about their children's education.

Who knows, if I had children perhaps I'd be equally as driven to see them succeed as do the Jewish families? But from my vantage point, I can't help but feel a little sorry for the Jewish kids I've known. I wish their parents would have lightened up a bit. I think a happier childhood might be a fair exchange for honors, instead of top honors.

Aside from the long list of Jewish Nobel Prize Laureates, I might also mention the great classical music artists. My favorite concert violin soloists, for example, have nearly all been Jewish. Though I hope my noticing that they are Jewish doesn't make me a racist.

I think it odd when I hear the view that we should live our lives without making generalizations about other peoples. To steal a quote from the mathematician Carl Jacobi, "Man muss immer generalisieren". One would have to fight against natural inclinations not to do so. My advice is not to be afraid to form generalizations of both the good and the bad aspects of behavior exhibited by groups. But take pains to form your own unbiased opinions based on your own observations. Likewise, always be ready to admit behavior in an individual of the group which is contrary to your prior generalization. The business of generalizing the behavior of human groups is not a science, at least not yet.

Once I almost did not sit next to a black man on a long train trip because of my earlier generalizations about black men. But I did end up sitting with him, and from Washington to Atlanta I enjoyed the fine company of a wonderful man. Henry was a botanist from Liberia. His stories of life in Africa were absolutely spellbinding. I felt myself in the company of greatness, and the trip ended far too soon for my liking. I can't remember the mathematician that wrote, "Experience modifies belief" (Paul Erdos perhaps?), but the quote certainly was fitting for this occasion.

And then I knew a guy who bicycled around the world (well nearly so). He was the sort who refused to make generalizations about people. I remember him telling me that while in Africa he brushed off his own apprehensions as he entered a certain district of a large city (Henry could have straightened him out on this one). People are just people, aren't they? Well, he remembers a crowd of men encircling him, and hands everywhere, pulling at him. He managed to run away with only only his life and his underpants.

In the large view, people usually are just people. All cultures share certain common aspects of human morality and behavior. But if you should happen across a band of pygmy head hunters you might think about running despite the fact that they might be very nice fellows individually.

Well then, generalize. But be ever-ready to allow for individual contrarian behavior. Treat groups according to your experiences of that group. Treat individuals as individuals.

Michael

Last edited: Jan 13, 2002
9. ### DreamsaDare to Dream!Registered Senior Member

Messages:
125
1965 Feynman, Richard P.
He is really very smart!

They seem to be very good at physics and biomedical sciences.

10. ### Chagur.Seeker.Registered Senior Member

Messages:
2,235
Dreamsa ...

And he played a pretty mean bongo drum.

But I don't know if he could dance.

Take care.

11. ### DreamsaDare to Dream!Registered Senior Member

Messages:
125
Chagur

He is special among all those scientists I have heard of.
GENIUS!

__________________________________________________
"What do you care what other people think!"
-Richard P. Feynman

12. ### GRO$$Registered Senior Member Messages: 304 Note... most, if not all of the people on that list are also male... does that make men smarter than women? 13. ### Chagur.Seeker.Registered Senior Member Messages: 2,235 GRO$$ ...

Definitely ... When it comes to winning the Nobel Prize in Physics.

Take care