I have always favored the image of a torus (donut) shaped unierse with a supermassive black hole in its center, with a super energetic white hole (BB) on the other side. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-torus_model_of_the_universe If the universe exists on the 2 D plane on the outside of the torus, and movement is perpendicular to the center, it creates an expanding universe until it passes the equator and begins to contract along the toroidal geometry. Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! This seems to me a perfect illustration (concept) of an endless loop, beginning with a Singularity White Hole (BB) spewing energy from the (bottom) center of the toroid, geometrically expanding (and cooling) along the 2D surface of the toroid until it passes the equator and begins to contract towards the center of the universal Supermassive Black Hole (SBH). What can present a more fundamental geometry to explain everything? To me this presents a very simple yet elegant answer to a lot of unanswered questions. It just "feels" right for an infinite looping self-referential system, which offers a conservation of energy but a periodic renewal of the universe. Moreover it does not forbid a possible multi-verse of toroidal universes which are completely independent of each other, but might share the same mathematics imposed by their geometrics. It would also explain any distant echo of a BB event, the SBH-->SWH continues to recycle this universe. p.s. @ James R, this might involve the the process of spacetime itself being swallowed (compressed) by the SBH only to be realeased by the SWH. Everything recycles and there will never be a static universe that has expanded horizontally until it..... ????