How is national wealth created, assuming it has neutral trade with other nations, and is not plundering other nations? By this I mean how is the amount of capitol (real money whether electronic or hard copy) available to the citizens of a particular nation increased. Now I know wealth can mean simple something of value. If Bill Gates has a major innovation in his products, he has increased his wealth, but only if someone can buy it. Gates' innovation has increased his personal wealth, but has it increased the nation’s wealth (spendable capitol)? In the case of the USA, I believe the FED introduces new “money” into circulation through preferred borrowers, but no proof to this. It can simply be manufactured (printed), but of course inflation will be a concern. Printing has to occur a relatively slow rate. Does it matter if the new money being printed is represented by a new widget (which has international value) one of the citizens discovered/found/etc.? In particular, I’m wondering why it is not true the Money Pie is a limited size, able to be divided only so many ways. How true is the statement “Everyone can be a millionaire” (assuming hard work, etc, etc…)?