I was looking at this map of Germany before unification in 1871: http://home.t-online.de/home/hans-peter.voss/maps/map02.htm I am wondering why there are so many states and areas of states that are entirely enclosed in another state. How did they get into this kind of situation? Also, why do some states control land that is not connected to the region with the capital? How did these enclaves come about? Thank you.