You can tell liberals by the attack the messenger song and dance routine. It appears to be their trademark. They never seem to prove any idea wrong by doing their own research. Rather they prefer to discredit the messenger as they source of proof. If Einstein said E=MC2, and liberals didn't like that because he made fun of a protected group, they would say he has bad hair and looks funny. This would be enough proof, in the liberal world ,to say that E=MC2 has to be wrong. Conservative will at least provide logic. Let me show another application of how this basic understanding of hydrogen bonding binary makes the complicated, simple. If you look at cell membranes, in general, and neuron membranes, in particular, sodium and potassium ions are pumped and exchanged to establish membrane potentials, among other things. These particular cations were chosen, by natural selection, for logical reasons connected to water. They can't be replaced to get the same subtle affects but were pre-ordained by nature. As it turns out, sodium cations will polar bond to water, slightly stronger than water hydrogen bonds to itself. Sodium ions are called kosmotropes because they create order in water because of this slighter stronger bonding. Potassium ions, on the other, polar bond slightly less strong to water, than water hydrogen bonds to itself. Potassium ions are called chaotrope or creates some chaos in the structuring of water. These two cations are the closest, on either side of water, in terms of strength of binding relative to hydrogen bonding They have a connection to the polar/covalent binary of hydrogen bonding, with each swinging the balance one way. If you look at the figure, in the last post that shows clusters of water, the expanded version on the left has more covalent character. It has to expand and form order so the covalent bonding orbitals can properly overlap. On the right, the collapsed version, has more polar bonding in the hydrogen bonds. The polar is primarily dependent on distance and needs to get closer but not as exact in position. These are denser but more disordered. Relative to potassium and sodium, the potassium by creating chaos helps water to collapse making more room. Sodium by adding order causes the water to expand putting on the squeeze. When cells accumulates potassium ions, it does so to help break up the structuring of the water inside the cell. The cell is a very crowded and dense place, since water is denser than organics, it self bonds and everything is elbow to elbow in water. Picture a crowed concert. The potassium ions creates more collapse in volume, and therefore creating breathing room for proteins to move between conformations. Outside the cell, the accumulation of sodium adds order to water, thereby enhancing the structuring of the water. This expands the water and puts on the squeeze, which has other uses. It makes it easy to funnel things. Neurons are interesting in that they fire, thereby switching between chaotropic and kosmotropic states, both inside and outside. The proteins are looser in the potassium ion induced collapsed water, when suddenly it gets very tight in the cell as sodium puffs the water up. I would guess this cycling would favor tight proteins such as memory scaffolding which don't mind the water fluctuations.