# Guide To Physics Jargon

Discussion in 'Pseudoscience Archive' started by Reiku, Nov 14, 2007.

1. ### ReikuBannedBanned

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Aether Theory - is the notion that fundamental matter, that is, all subatomic matter have a field of force that instructs them how to behave with other matter... creating coherency at this low level, must then inexorably reflect the importance of coherency between macroscopic objects... If it is a real field (and that is a big ''if'' because i am not convinced), i would, and have in some respect, interpret this force as the will of God. Some scientists believe Aether is needed. Other's ridicule the thought due to relativity.

Albert Einstein - Was a German-born theoretical physicist (March 14th 1879-1955), thought to be the best physicist that had ever lived. He is most associated with the mass-energy equivalence equation E=Mc^2, and for his special and general relativity papers. He was awarded with a Nobel Prize in 1921 for his work in 1905 on the 'Annus Mirabilis'. Some believe that Einstein should have received a lot more Nobel’s for his work; especially for the Relativity papers and 'the Brownian Movement.'

Anthropic Principle - This is the principle that states that our universe expanded so that we could exist.

Antimatter - Is this opposite of ordinary matter (the stuff we are made of).
Antimatter was distributed in equal proportion when ordinary matter emerged from the distortions of spacetime. Antimatter, when comes into contact with ordinary matter annihilates each other with twice the magnitude of energy as high-frequency gamma rays (light).

Arrow of Time - These arrows that can arise in perception or in nature point to a directionality, which help us in understanding the path of time, which is, according to our observations and calculations, points forward.

Artificial Intelligence - is a theory stating that it is capable to create an independent consciousness within computers. This theory, as-yet cannot be denied, as it equally cannot be proven. Such a theory can only be answered through time... unless conspiracists are correct, and an artificial intelligence already exits, as portrayed in the 1990's film, 'The Matrix.'

Big Bang - The theory of the birth of our Universe. It states that a sudden explosion occurred and expanded outwards in a burst of energy and matter, 15 billion years ago.

Big Crunch - The theory that our universe might one day begin contracting and reducing in size.

Big Rip - The theory that our universe will one day suffer a massive tear in all matter.

Black Hole - This is a remnant of a star that has so much mass concentrated in it, it is able to stop light itself. A black hole will have infinite curvature at its centre called the singularity. It might also link one universe with another universe through wormholes located inside of it.

Bradyon/Tardyon - A Bradyon is a particle that moves with a velocity which is always under the speed of light. Another name for this particle is a 'Tardyon.' This particle moves more in imaginary space (real time), than it does in real space. (imaginary time).

Cosmology - The study of our large universe.

Copenhagen Interpretation - an interpretation on quantum mechanics given by Niels Bohr.

Collapse of the Wave Function - A sudden change in state. Usually used in interpreting what would happen when a quantum system is being observed. Thus, whenever anything is observed, according to the Copenhagen interpretation, that system is reduced to a single probability.

Continuum - Is a dimension with infinite space. Our space and time are two aspects of one single continuum.

Chronon - Our universe began at the first chronon. It is an infinitesimally small period; it is the billionth of the billionth of the billionth of the billionth of the billionth part of one second.

Corporeal - An object with physical body structure.

Decoherence - a fantastic, though disturbing discovery made in 1996 by physicists that seems to prove that a mixed state object can settle into a single state due to its environment.

Density - Even a mass of an object has a lot of space between the atoms it is made of. The space measures how dense an object is. Our planet for instance, is about 96% space - so it is not very dense.

Dimension - A dimension is a realm of freedom. In our universe we have three spatial dimensions and one time dimension. They make up the vast space of the universe.

Dirac's Equation - It showed the existence of the antiparticle. His equation opened new doors into the laws of physics.

Echo Wave - This is a quantum wave that travels backwards in time.

Electron - The electron is the smallest subatomic particle known, with a mass of about 938 MeV (mega-electro vaults). The electron which has a negative charge lives inside of atoms around the nuclei which have a positive charge.
E=Mc^2 - This is Einstien's mass-energy equivalence equation, developed for his relativity theories. E is for energy. M is for mass. C is for celeritas, and ^2 is squared.

Ekpyrotic Cosmological Theory - states that our universe has a siemese twin, that inexorably speeds away, and bounces back off each other, causing a Big Bang all over again.

EPR Paradox - Created by Einstein, Pololsky and Rosen, it deals with the measurement on one half of a system. The other half, even though it is no longer attached to the system, is instantly determined. Thus the measured part determines the unmeasured part.

Exclusion Principle - This principle was devised by Wolfgang Pauli - it states that all particles must cancel each other out, by having a unique position, spin, path ect. that is not shared by another particle inside of an atom.

First Instant - see 'Chronon'

Flat Spacetime - is a theory stating that the three dimensional coordinates of visible space, aren't curled and twisted into time, but rather seen as a flat, smooth scape, that extends into infinity. Thus, this is an anti-Einstinian concept, as states in his Relativistic Laws and imaginary principles, that space and time bend into each other, like a grand ''Gordian’s knot.''

Gravity - is the weakest of all four fundamental forces, and the most elusive, as we have never detected its fundamental maker, the ''graviton'' - which is strange, i must admit... after all, the force of gravity, according to physics must be made up of such an elementary particle. Though, some scientists believe no such particle exists - but they are few in number...

Gravitational Waves - as common as they ''should'' be, according to the Big Bang Model, these waves have so far not been detected. Some scientists don't even believe they are as common as predicted, which would seem like the most logical explanation, for the time being anyhow...

Ground State - is the lowest amount of energy as determined by quantum rules.

Higgs Boson - It is a hypothetical particle proposed by Peter Higgs. Being the only particle predicted by the standard model, and as yet has not been seen, the Higgs Boson is thought to provide all matter with mass, accompanied by an invisible force field. For such a reason, the particle itself has been dubbed as the ''God Particle.''

Hubble Expansion - also known as Hubble red shift - Discovered by Edwin Hubble, measurements of objects in our universe seem to indicate that everything is receding from us, showing an expanding universe. We measure the expansion when objects that are moving away from us appear to be redder, and the closer an object is, the bluer it will appear. We know these effects to be true, because the same thing happens when the colour 'red' is radiated by an object showing it is in a strong gravitational field, and 'blue' when in a weak field. Measuring these 'Time Warps,' proved Einstien’s static universe as wrong, as he himself said, 'it was my biggest blunder.'

Hyperspace - This theory states that our universe was once a perfect 10 dimensional space. Then suddenly, the dimensions cracked; this caused our universe to expand, whilst the 6th dimension began to contract violently. If it is correct, it might explain big bang theory.

Imaginary Space - Imaginary space, is the same thing as real time. We move through the imaginary dimension of space at the speed of light.

Luxen - This is a particle that always moves with a velocity equalling that of light. Light moves at 186,000 miles per second.

Macroevent - The scale unto which we can observe things directly by the naked eye.

Microevent - This is the small world of electrons and photons and all other elementary particles.

Momentum - This is the measure of matter in motion. Thus, the momentum of a 'particle' is in fact the equivalence to an infinite collection of waves, we come to call, 'the wave function.'

Offer Wave - This is a quantum wave that travels forward through time.

Oscillate - If something oscillates, it is said to move back and forth.

Paradox - This is a problematic situation. A paradox might consist of a situation that is contradictory with itself.

Parallel Universes - This is the theory that states that our universe is in fact one in an infinite amount of universes all superimposed upon each other.

Photon - A photon is a particle of light - it is the smallest particle of energy, with no mass, and emits an electromagnetic field. The light from the sun takes a little under 8.3 minutes to reach us and thus travels at the fast velocity of 186,000 miles per hour. The Photon is an ethereal zero-time particle; this means it doesn't move through space, neither does it take any time to do anything. Therego, its birth and death are simultaneous.

Powers - If a calculation is 10x10x10x10, then it can be represented as 10^4, then that means 10 multiplied by 10 four times - powers can help us catalogue large numbers into easy notation.

Psi - A mathematical symbol that is used to describe a quantum wave that travels forward in time.

Psi-Star - Is the mathematical symbol for a quantum wave that travels backwards in time.

Relativity Theory - There are the general and special relativity theories. The general theory deals with gravity as the presence of matter and the distortions of space and time. The special theory deals with the calculations one might envision in respect of another observer that is moving at a fixed velocity.

Schrödinger’s Cat - Erwin Schrödinger proposed this principle, to state the incompleteness of quantum physics. A cat is locked up in a chamber, with atoms that will or will not emit gas - suppose that the probability of the atoms being unstable is 50% - if no one looks in the box, is Schrödinger’s cat dead or alive?

Singularity - A negative point in space and time where all laws of quantum physics are meaningless, because all aspects take on infinite values.

Standard Interpretation - see the Copenhagen Interpretation.

String Theory - States that fundamental particles are not 'point-like,' but rather they are little strings all vibrating with differential frequencies, existing as ''higher objects,'' in an eleven-dimensional space.

Superdimension- This is the human mind and consciousness. Somehow, the mind influences the material world, that whenever we come to measure something, we ultimately create that system, by giving it meaning, texture, colour, shape ect - and the information thus floods into our beings/consciousness. Superdimension can also mean that the human mind is a dimension of its own, threaded into the external world of reality.

Superposition - This is when two possibilities, or more, are superimposed upon each other.

Tachyon - This hypothetical particle travels faster than light. It is made of a strange substance called 'imaginary matter,' and thus has 'timelike' qualities, meaning it can move backward and forward through the time dimension.

Thermodynamics - The first states that there is conservation in energy... thus, nothing can be removed, only transferred. The second law states that the flow of heat cannot spontaneously convert to one body to a warmer body. The third states that everything is moving, even at zero-temperature.

Twin Paradox - Einstein devised this paradox to show how time is not absolute. It describes a twin that leaves earth near the speed of light and returns after so many light years, only to find on his arrival that his twin has aged dramatically, whilst he has aged only a few minutes.

Quark - An elementary particle that makes up the nucleus of atoms. They in turn make up protons and neutrons which make up 99% of the entire atom.

Quantum Cosmology - is the study of the universe in the atomic and subatomic scale during the first instants.

Quantum Leap - Is a discontinuous change from one state to another. A particle that quantum leaps, will move from one place to another without ever going in between, as if it vanishes of the spacetime map for a fraction.

Quantum Wave Function - It is a mathematical formula that predicts the likelihoods of an object in space.

Uncertainty Principle - A difficult principle to understand, brought about by Werner Heisenberg, that states that certain knowledge’s are at the expense of other knowledge’s, and shows that the world cannot be summed up entirely of cause and effect.

Wormhole - A topological opening in space and time, that can link to other times in this universe, whether that be in the future or in the past - and if theory is correct, it might even link up with other universes. Wormholes are predicted to exist inside of black holes. For a black hole to become traversable wormhole for objects moving at a speed slower than light, it requires matter with a negative energy... we call this exotic matter. It is needed to counteract the positive energy of gravity, which tends to 'bring everything together,' whereas negative matter will blow everything up.

Zeno-Effect - An atom, ripe to radiate energy, can be suspended in time through simple observation.

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copy/paste

5. ### DeepThoughtBannedBanned

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I've read though that treating the Big Bang in a similar way to the kind of explosion that we experience on earth is incorrect.

Those explosions have a verifiable center from which they emanate whereas the Big Bang doesn't and was more like a slow expansion of space-time?

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8. ### ReikuBannedBanned

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Yes... a copy/paste from MY book.

9. ### BenTheManDr. of Physics, Prof. of LoveValued Senior Member

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This is true. Also, there was no light'' during the big bang. Photons don't exist untill well after the big bang is over. And then the universe is STILL dark untill about 300,000 years later.

10. ### NickelodeonBannedBanned

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if book = wikipedia then yes.

11. ### ReikuBannedBanned

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True... but until we have a better understanding, we are fucked.

It was Sir Fred Hoyle, ironically enough that devised the name ''Big Bang.'' I say ironic because he disagreed with Big Bang...

12. ### spuriousmonkeyBannedBanned

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oh, interesting. could that be compared to Spencer coining the phrase 'survival of the fittest'?

13. ### ReikuBannedBanned

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:bugeye:

Lol...

yes i suppose... I think...

14. ### BenTheManDr. of Physics, Prof. of LoveValued Senior Member

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Reiku---

I don't have a problem with you posting this here, however, I disagree with some of your definitions.

15. ### ReikuBannedBanned

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That's ok... I am open to changing some of the definitions...

But this is really the case in any physics, differential opinions and complimentarity decisions.

16. ### BenTheManDr. of Physics, Prof. of LoveValued Senior Member

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First of all, I don't think Aether theory is still seriously studied by anyone except Zephir at the other forum, mostly because if any aether existed, Michelson and Morrely showed that it didn't have any observable consequences in like 1890. And if it has no observable consequences, then it's not really science.

17. ### ReikuBannedBanned

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Again, alas, i disagree, and you obviously don't know all of the Aether-Concepts.

As you might know, Einstein’s theory of Brownian movement became empirical evidence that atoms existed. Before this discovery, particles and forces where assumed not to exist - but this revolution showed us that we could observe atoms through microscopic-lensed telescopes.

Einstein was heavily influenced by his mathematical insights, and this gave him great understanding into the world of particle behaviour - this too must bring with it the forces that 'carry' these specific particles… This included a particular medium for all matter called the Aether.

What is 'Aether Theory' all about?
Einstein wrote a paper on what was called, 'The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields'. I find it a most interesting paper. I believe it was originally devised contemporaneously for [one] of his uncles.
Also known as 'Ether' from the Greek Word (aio'np), which basically means 'upper' or a.k.a. 'pure fresh air,' - it was believed to be an all-spacetime filling field. They refer its effects as a 'transmissional medium'. The Aether hypothesis has come in numerous forms, through the multiple interpretations throughout history.
The orthodox Aether Interpretation is that it is a physical force/medium that permeates every corner of spacetime thus indicating an influence on all materialistic bodies contained within all spacetime. Another result of Aether presents properties that give rise to the electric, magnetic and gravitational potentials, and also determines the propagating velocity of their effects.

It get's even more complex: it states that the propagating effects throughout all of the universe, are determined by the physical field of the Aether - which acts in a manor analogous to sound waves, such as the wave properties of a photon. Any developing propagation and potential effects within spacetime due to their velocities are viewed as having real effects. Thus, fundamental interactions depend on this Aether Force, in intrical ways.

The rippling or ''propagation'' of the Force of Aether also presents time directionality, reflected in the 'Radiative Arrow’ - found in quantum evolution. Though, the effect in velocities predicted by Aether indicates the possibility in the answering of matter formations, and the age discrepancies that haunt our observations of galactic formations.
This is as elementary as i can express it: Aether is a physically-interactive force field which acts as a mediator throughout all universal bodies - even between them in the vast Intergalactic Cosmological Medium - and like all 'mediums', if it exists, as i believe it does, must have fundamental attributes consisting of a pressure, a tension, a mass density and temperature.

Aether, as controversial as it has become to be known in the academic world, has played, as i believe, one of the biggest roles in the developing theories of the equally controversial quantum mechanics. And this is why: During the 19th century, the most elementary fundamental forces where known as electrical, magnetical and 'luminous' phenomena. By unifying these fundamental characteristics, brought with it new modes of theories... integrating the fields of force into a single network.

The Preferred Model of Aether Theory

Thus, the attention during the 19th century was focused on the fundamental interaction of electromagnetic phenomena.
It was in fact assumed for a while by the majority of the physicists of that era that 'ponderable' matter, consistent of having what is called 'rest value,' and 'inertia', was inexorably differential, that was 'somehow' meshed, or, enveloped through the permeating, all-space and all-time Aether.
Now, some strange conclusions can be made here. If the above is correct, this interpretation states that an object must literally 'plow' through the Aether. If it 'plows' through the Aether, it then must also drag the ''fabric'' of Aether along its trajectory.

If the hypothetical object does not move the distribution of pressure exerted by the strange Aether, means that it is equally proportional in all directions! A function coined by scientists as (isotropic). It has also come to be more widely known as the 'Rest Frame of The Aether.'
Thought indicated that the measure of matter in motion through this Aether Field was highly important. One way to measure such an effect would be found in the momentum of the Earth, which was considered to be suffice in magnitude, that its speed was determinable.
Thus a physicist called Albert Michelson in 1881 set out to find the tail whip of the Aether wind as earth ploughed through it.

The Test of Matter in Motion Through The Aether

Michelson solved the question to this, through experimental tests, that, unfortunately resulted in 'the Big Goose Egg,' - 'absolute nada'. Again, it was repeated in 1887, this time counterparted with physicist Edward Morley, and their experiment became to be known as the 'Michelson-Morley Experiment.' However, even this revived experiment proved fruitless!
It basically meant at the time, that the positive results predicted by the ‘Preferred Model,’ were not conclusive with the predicted results.

So How Should Matter in Aether Be Viewed?

Well, science informs us that any medium would itself react to any movement of a physical ''meshed'' object, the postulate of a static Aether is also assumed to be flawed. However, ways around this can be evaluated. The 'classic way' to describe the following, is that, whenever you swirl your hand in water, and if the medium has any viscosity, it will experience a 'dragging effect', thus can be now imagined to cause a circular motion - a bit like the way a Black Hole itself drags space and time with it... However, as the time variables increase, so does the relative speed and drag between the body and the medium.
This results the overall magnitude to be equally dependant on the 'value of viscosity', which relentlessly leads to many variants of the Aether theory and the momentum of matter through it. These lead to 'Coefficient Theories,' and principles for how all Bradyonic matter should interact with the Luxen particle of light.
The progressive evolution in Aether theories has paradoxically made our search rather difficult, as they open 'too many doors', making any initial theory almost invalid to make any self-assured predictions.

Quantum Mechanics and Aether Theory

Quantum Mechanics, as you will undoubtedly know, is used to interpret the function of matter at the fundamental level. We see this as all arising from the vacuum, like the spontaneous bubbling of electrons and antielectrons out of the Dirac Sea whenever there is enough energy present. Remember, the Dirac Sea is packed full with negative particles.
Matter must come out of the vacuum, and create two distinct forms of longer-lived spacetime distortional fluctuations; a particle and its antipartner. This was called by physicist J. A Wheeler as ''quantum foam.''
These fluctuations arise out of a spatial coordinate - this size is 1.616 x 30^-33, which is the smallest known 'box' of space. The fluctuations also arise out of the smallest time possible, called the ‘Planck Time,' which is 5.391 x 10^-44 seconds. It is here, in this infinitesimal unit of space that releases an enormous amount of virtual energy in the quickest time possible!

On this small level, space and time literally forces these spontaneous rapid releases of quantum bubbles of energy/gas that breaks into a particle and its antiparticle. Thus, Quantum Theory might itself be indicating an equivalence with 'zero-point energy field,' that may be the shadow of a ''particulate Aether''.

There are simply some aspects about the Aether field that we simply ‘just need’. There are many more theories about the Aether though which are very controversial such as The Einstein-Aether Theories… And all this originally stemmed from physicist Thomas Young’s experiment of a photons quantum wave. I don't think the Aether field will be solved any time soon – however, the Aether field is now gaining more and more interest, as I have been informed by Dr. Fred Alan Wolf… The reason why is because some scientists believe that dark energy might be linked to the Aether… And because we know so very little about dark energy, this has got the scientists very excited.

18. ### ReikuBannedBanned

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In other words Ben... If quantum aether is related to dark energy, then it is observable, and your arguement does not qualify.

19. ### zephirBannedBanned

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Aether Wave Theory

Aether Wave Theory is the classical mechanic interpretation of vacuum behavior, quantum mechanics and relativity theory. The Michelson-Morley excluded only one variant of Aether: the case, when the Aether is formed by sparse particle system, so that it behaves like gas, where the energy is spreading through bulk phase in longitudinal waves.

But such concept is physically unfeasible, because the vacuum is able to transfer the high energy densities of gamma radiation, so that its mass/energy density should be as high, as the energy density of most energetic gamma radiation. In such dense particle system the energy spreads in transversal waves predominantly (its density fluctuations aren't blobs, but rather foam membranes, here), which is exactly what the classical Maxwell's Aether model expected. Inside of such dense system the reference frame of environment is quite unsignificant, because most of energy spreads along surfaces of quantum foam, i.e. like tiny waves at the water surface, which are ignoring the water stream motion. With respect of such waves the water surface is behaving like thin elastic membrane and the reference frame of the underwater environment can be neglected - which is exactly, what the Lorentz invariance is about. This is whole trick of Aether Wave Theory, which enables to re-introduce the Aether concept into contemporary physics again.

Last edited: Nov 21, 2007
20. ### ReikuBannedBanned

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It's alright Zeph... I think he nowunderstands that Aether is a needed factor in QM. Bothing else though, as theory goes.

21. ### zephirBannedBanned

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The connection of Aether Wave Theory to quantum mechanics is as easy, as at the case of relativity theory. The foamy character of Aether fluctuations leads to the non-linear character of every energy wave. We know, the foam gets dense during shaking, so that every wave makes the foam more dense temporarily at the place/moment, where the wave soliton is moving. Therefore every wave soliton is behaving like less or more dense blob of Aether foam, i.e. like particle. This behavior leads to particle-wave duality and the non-linear behavior of quantum waves, where the mass density is proportional to energy density in each place and moment: this is what the "quantum string" is about. Now you can understand both relativity, bot quantum mechanics by using of the single (and simple) concept of mechanical foam. This can serve as an evidence, our vacuum is in fact formed by very dense particle system, probably by interior of dense star, similar to black hole (with density in the range of 10E+90 J/m3).

The whole problem in Aether concept understanding is at the point, the physicists can imagine the behavior of very thin and sparse matter, while the intuitive understanding of extremely dense particle system is not so trivial. The behavior of heavily compressed inertial matter in terrestrial conditions, like the condensing supercritical vapor can serve as a clue, what the whole Aether thingy is all about.

22. ### ReikuBannedBanned

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Stop right there. There is no evidence of an Aether wave, but rather a quantum Aether, which has very little to do with waves, but rather the bubbling of energy. This is the true and only real accepted Aether.

23. ### zephirBannedBanned

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This is exactly, why the previous post of mine explains the difference between quantum wave and normal wave. You can see, how the quantum wave arises from classical wave by Aether Wave Theory on the DHTML applet/animation here. The quantum wave arises from undulation of many entangled foam bubbles, which are connected via common phase and energy density.

hxxp://superstruny.aspweb.cz/images/fyzika/simulace/aether.htm
hxxp://superstruny.aspweb.cz/images/fyzika/simulace/quantum_wave_foam.gif