Fallacies - A Reference

Discussion in 'General Philosophy' started by spookz, Jan 9, 2003.

  1. spookz Banned Banned


    Fallacies of Distraction

    False Dilemma: two choices are given when in fact there are three options
    From Ignorance: because something is not known to be true, it is assumed to be false
    Slippery Slope: a series of increasingly unacceptable consequences is drawn
    Complex Question: two unrelated points are conjoined as a single proposition

    Appeals to Motives in Place of Support

    Appeal to Force: the reader is persuaded to agree by force
    Appeal to Pity: the reader is persuaded to agree by sympathy
    Consequences: the reader is warned of unacceptable consequences
    Prejudicial Language:value or moral goodness is attached to believing the author
    Popularity: a proposition is argued to be true because it is widely held to be true

    Changing the Subject

    Attacking the Person:
    (1) the person's character is attacked
    (2) the person's circumstances are noted
    (3) the person does not practise what is preached
    Appeal to Authority:
    (1) the authority is not an expert in the field
    (2) experts in the field disagree
    (3) the authority was joking, drunk, or in some other way not being serious
    Anonymous Authority: the authority in question is not named
    Style Over Substance: the manner in which an argument (or arguer) is presented is felt to affect the truth of the conclusion

    Inductive Fallacies

    Hasty Generalization: the sample is too small to support an inductive generalization about a population
    Unrepresentative Sample: the sample is unrepresentative of the sample as a whole
    False Analogy: the two objects or events being compared are relevantly dissimilar
    Slothful Induction: the conclusion of a strong inductive argument is denied despite the evidence to the contrary
    Fallacy of Exclusion: evidence which would change the outcome of an inductive argument is excluded from consideration

    Fallacies Involving Statistical Syllogisms

    Accident: a generalization is applied when circumstances suggest that there should be an exception
    Converse Accident : an exception is applied in circumstances where a generalization should apply

    Causal Fallacies

    Post Hoc: because one thing follows another, it is held to cause the other
    Joint effect: one thing is held to cause another when in fact they are both the joint effects of an underlying cause
    Insignificant: one thing is held to cause another, and it does, but it is insignificant compared to other causes of the effect
    Wrong Direction: the direction between cause and effect is reversed
    Complex Cause: the cause identified is only a part of the entire cause of the effect

    Missing the Point

    Begging the Question: the truth of the conclusion is assumed by the premises
    Irrelevant Conclusion: an argument in defense of one conclusion instead proves a different conclusion
    Straw Man: the author attacks an argument different from (and weaker than) the opposition's best argument

    Fallacies of Ambiguity

    Equivocation: the same term is used with two different meanings
    Amphiboly: the structure of a sentence allows two different interpretations
    Accent: the emphasis on a word or phrase suggests a meaning contrary to what the sentence actually says

    Category Errors

    Composition: because the attributes of the parts of a whole have a certain property, it is argued that the whole has that property
    Division: because the whole has a certain property, it is argued that the parts have that property

    Non Sequitur

    Affirming the Consequent: any argument of the form: If A then B, B, therefore A
    Denying the Antecedent: any argument of the form: If A then B, Not A, thus Not B
    Inconsistency: asserting that contrary or contradictory statements are both true

    Syllogistic Errors

    Fallacy of Four Terms: a syllogism has four terms
    Undistributed Middle: two separate categories are said to be connected because they share a common property
    Illicit Major: the predicate of the conclusion talks about all of something, but the premises only mention some cases of the term in the predicate
    Illicit Minor: the subject of the conclusion talks about all of something, but the premises only mention some cases of the term in the subject
    Fallacy of Exclusive Premises: a syllogism has two negative premises
    Fallacy of Drawing an Affirmative Conclusion From a Negative Premise: as the name implies
    Existential Fallacy: a particular conclusion is drawn from universal premises

    Fallacies of Explanation

    Subverted Support (The phenomenon being explained doesn't exist)
    Non-support (Evidence for the phenomenon being explained is biased)
    Untestability (The theory which explains cannot be tested)
    Limited Scope (The theory which explains can only explain one thing)
    Limited Depth (The theory which explains does not appeal to underlying causes)

    Fallacies of Definition

    Too Broad (The definition includes items which should not be included)
    Too Narrow (The definition does not include all the items which shouls be included)
    Failure to Elucidate (The definition is more difficult to understand than the word or concept being defined)
    Circular Definition (The definition includes the term being defined as a part of the definition)
    Conflicting Conditions (The definition is self-contradictory)

    Last edited: Jan 9, 2003
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  3. EvilPoet I am what I am Registered Senior Member

    Cool! Thanks for posting these spookz.

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  5. Xev Registered Senior Member

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  7. notme2000 The Art Of Fact Registered Senior Member

    If only we had this sticky in the religion forum

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  8. spookz Banned Banned


    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/ad-hominem.html">Ad Hominem</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/ad-hominem-tu-quoque.html">Ad Hominem Tu Quoque</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/appeal-to-authority.html">Appeal to Authority</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/appeal-to-belief.html">Appeal to Belief</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/appeal-to-common-practice.html">Appeal to Common Practice</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/appeal-to-consequences.html">Appeal to Consequences of a Belief</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/appeal-to-emotion.html">Appeal to Emotion</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/appeal-to-fear.html">Appeal to Fear</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/appeal-to-flattery.html">Appeal to Flattery</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/appeal-to-novelty.html">Appeal to Novelty</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/appeal-to-pity.html">Appeal to Pity</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/appeal-to-popularity.html">Appeal to Popularity</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/appeal-to-ridicule.html">Appeal to Ridicule</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/appeal-to-spite.html">Appeal to Spite</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/appeal-to-tradition.html">Appeal to Tradition</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/bandwagon.html">Bandwagon</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/begging-the-question.html">Begging the Question</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/biased-sample.html">Biased Sample</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/burden-of-proof.html">Burden of Proof</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/circumstantial-ad-hominem.html">Circumstantial Ad Hominem</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/composition.html">Composition</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/confusing-cause-and-effect.html">Confusing Cause and Effect</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/division.html">Division</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/false-dilemma.html">False Dilemma</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/gamblers-fallacy.html">Gambler's Fallacy</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/genetic-fallacy.html">Genetic Fallacy</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/guilt-by-association.html">Guilt By Association</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/hasty-generalization.html">Hasty Generalization</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/ignoring-a-common-cause.html">Ignoring A Common Cause</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/middle-ground.html">Middle Ground</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/misleading-vividness.html">Misleading Vividness</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/personal-attack.html">Personal Attack</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/poisoning-the-well.html">Poisoning the Well</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/post-hoc.html">Post Hoc</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/questionable-cause.html">Questionable Cause</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/red-herring.html">Red Herring</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/relativist-fallacy.html">Relativist Fallacy</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/slippery-slope.html">Slippery Slope</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/special-pleading.html">Special Pleading</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/spotlight.html">Spotlight</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/straw-man.html">Straw Man</a>
    <li><a href="http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/two-wrongs-make-a-right.html">Two Wrongs Make A Right</a>
  9. hotsexyangelprincess WMD Registered Senior Member

    its pretty cool :m:
  10. ndrs The Anti-Cthulhu Registered Senior Member

    Another nice skeptic site at.. http://skepdic.com/ Has got some fallacies there as well, together with nice explanations.
  11. Strawberry Slush Registered Member

    is that like a limp penis?

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    (chuckle chuckle chuckle)
  12. spookz Banned Banned

    Conversational Terrorism

    • Ad Hominem Variants


      [*]"I'd like to respond to that, but taking into account your background, education, and intelligence, I am quite sure that you would not be able to understand."

      EVEN YOU:

      [*]"My next point will be so cogent that even you will be able to understand it."
      [*]"Even you should be able to grasp the next point."


      [*]"I used to think that way when I was your age."
      [*]"As you mature emotionally (or mentally, or spiritually), you will grow out of your present way of thinking, and you will eventually come around to my point of view."
      [*]"You're new here, aren't you?"


      [*]"You support capital punishment because of a deep-rooted death wish common among those who have suffered emotional traumas during childhood."
      [*]"You oppose capital punishment because of an irrational suppressed death taboo common among those who have suffered emotional trauma during childhood."
      [*]"You weren't breast fed as a child, were you?"

      Sleight of Mind Fallacies


      [*]"We need to define just exactly what you mean by _________."
      [*]"Your last sentence ended with a preposition. Please restate it properly."


      [*]"I have observed that those who disagree with me on the next point tend to be unsophisticated, and those who quickly recognize the validity of the point to be more educated. The point is...."
      [*]"Of course there is a lot of debate on this subject, but the best scholars believe..."


      [*]"So you think we ought to just throw out the whole system, then?"
      [*]"How is that different from classic fascism?"
      [*]"So you would just like to kill off anyone who disagrees with you, it appears!"


      [*]"I don't think we can go on until we establish the scientific validity of that last statement."
      [*]"I don't see any point in discussing this until all the data are in."


      [*]"I don't see how you figure that."
      [*]"I agree with everything you said except the conclusion. It doesn't make any sense to me, and I can not accept it. I am trying, but your brain must work much differently than mine."

      Delay Tactics


      [*]"I think the answer to your last question will clear up your confusion on this subject. (Long pause) Are you ready?"
      [*]"Excellent question, and I think the answer will startle you." (Pause, look thoughtfully as if a response is due while thinking up an answer.)
      [*]"I'm glad you asked. Would you like a long or a short answer?"


      [*]"This question could only come from the confusion of the ______ mind-set."
      [*]"That is an interesting question coming from you. Interesting, interesting, interesting." (Pause, as if admiring the other person. )
      [*]"The question asked, is basically _______, ________, _______." (Restate the questions in various ways, pausing for approval between each, while thinking up an answer.)


      [*]"Why do you ask that?" / "What makes you ask that?"
      [*]"What drives you to make such a statement?"


      [*]"What you inferred is not what you implied."
      [*]"Your problem is that you are thinking in a linear versus configurational framework."
      [*]"I'm not sure if I fail to disagree with that or not."

      Question As Opportunity


      [*]"It is not a question of (this) or (that), but rather it is an issue of (whatever it is you want to say.)"
      [*]["Are you for or against capital punishment?"] "I don't think the issue is being for or against capital punishment. The real issue facing our country is the federal budget deficit. I propose that we.... "
      [*]"X is certainly one topic that could be discussed, but Y is another..."
      [*]"Well, my track record is certainly one issue, but this month's agenda is another. Do you know that in the next five days...."

      General Cheap Shot Tactics and Irritants


      [*]"Take this example: suppose you were a person who was incredibly stupid but was trying to come off as intelligent. What would the proper response be if you were me?"
      [*]"Let's just say that we knew for sure that you were a sexual pervert...."


      [*]"Research at UCLA has proven conclusively...."
      [*]"I know the idea sounds unorthodox, but a recent study at Harvard has substantiated this view."


      [*]"Since you are a true intellectual, I will have to give you a more comprehensive answer than most... Blah, Blah, Blah... (use WORD SALAD technique).
      [*]"Now that I have answered your point, do you have any other concerns?" (Repeat until the other person collapses or gives in.)


      [*]"If I hear you correctly, your point is... (get it all wrong)."
      [*]"It sounds as if you are saying that torturing children is a good idea...." (Dean and Marshall VanDruff)
    Last edited: Feb 16, 2003
  13. Litlle phylosopher Registered Member

    But God certainly is a blue rabbit.
  14. Mystech Adult Supervision Required Registered Senior Member

    Come on everyone, say it with me, "Post hoc ergo propter hoc"! It's just fun to say out loud, come on, do it! I should have taken latten, such a fun language. Gladius Maximus. . . mmmm.
  15. eddie monkey FU Registered Senior Member

    What is it called when an arguement occurs and the statement "there is no point in talking to you. You won't listen to anything I say"?

    What about "You are just looking for stuff to complain about" when in fact a serious discussion is desired?
  16. pumpkinsaren'torange Registered Senior Member

    yeah..but, it takes 2 willing partners to discuss the matter at hand...if one refuses to participate in the said discussion...then, you've got nothing...except you talking to yourself. ya know..?
  17. eddie monkey FU Registered Senior Member

    But haven't they lost if they use a cop out like the ones I mentioned?
  18. Mystech Adult Supervision Required Registered Senior Member

    We'll it's not exactly who as "Wins" or who "Loses" an argument isn't exactly designed like that. Something more productive is supposed to be accomplished, either a flawed idea corrected, or a position defeneded, baring that, at least giving eachother a few new points to think on. It shouldn't be so personal as to have a winner and loser.
  19. ben nevis Registered Senior Member

    It's a fallacy to believe that anyone understands latin (apart from the Pope) in the 21st century. Post hoc ergo?
  20. everneo Re-searcher Registered Senior Member

    Everything comes under fallacy... if u want not to commit any fallacy only say "yes" or "no"..! let ur opponent commits one those fallacies...!

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  21. EvilPoet I am what I am Registered Senior Member

    Logical Fallacies and the Art of Debate

    "Philosophy consists very largely of one philosopher
    arguing that all others are jackasses. He usually proves
    it, and I should add that he also usually proves that he
    is one himself." -H. L. Mencken
  22. Mystech Adult Supervision Required Registered Senior Member

    Heh, well, Nevis, that's an interesting statement. For one, I have no idea why the pope would be expected to understand Latin, but then again I'm not up on popely stuff, and maybe that's some sort of requirement of the job.

    Latin is the language of science, it's not a dead language, but everyone who knows just a little bit about science as it stands today knows a bit of Latin. Most western languages are based in Latin, and still have very many parallels, so it's not as alien as a completely foreign language could be.

    And also, the fallacy I named was in the original list of fallacies posted in this thread, so I don't know what you are complaining about

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  23. ben nevis Registered Senior Member

    Ok Mystech you win. I kind of thought it was a fallacy that I knew anything about fallacies.

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