Eragon Ancient Language

Discussion in 'Linguistics' started by Fungezoid, Sep 25, 2008.

  1. Fungezoid Banned Banned

    I've translated everything said, and in the lexicons accurately.

    Aiedail: The morning star
    arget: silver
    Argetlam: Silver Hand, Silver Palm
    lam: hand, palm
    Boteq istalri: broad fire
    boteq: broad
    breoal: family, house
    brisingr: fire
    Deloi: earth
    moi: change
    delois: a green-leafed plant with purple flowers
    Domina: dominance
    aba: of
    wyrda: fate
    dras: city
    dramur: dream
    kopa: stare
    Du: the
    grind: gate
    huildir: hold
    Welden: forest
    varden: warding, gaurding
    edoc'sil: unconquerable
    eitha: go, leave
    Eka: 1
    ethgri: invoke
    fethrblaka: bird
    blaka: flapper, flap
    ono: you
    ai: a
    Atra: let, may
    gulai: luck
    un: and
    ilian: happiness
    tauthr: follow
    waise: be
    skolir: sheild
    skoliro: shielded
    fra: from
    rauthr: misfortune
    Vrangr: wandering
    gata: path, passage
    fricai: friend
    Shurtugal: Rider
    vanta: lacks
    abr: of
    garjzla: light
    weohnata: will
    neiat: not
    haina: harm
    eom: to
    gath: unite
    reisa: rise
    rakr: mist
    geuloth: dull
    knifr: knife
    iet: my
    theirra: their
    kalfis: calves (ankles)
    manin: memory
    hugin: thought
    stenr: stone
    nagz: blanket
    seithr: witch
    celobra: honor
    mulabra: mean
    ne: no
    slytha: sleep
    thrysta: thrust, compress
    thverr: traverse
    horna: hear
    vondr: a thin straight stick
    heill: heal
    Wiol: for
    yawe: a bond of trust
    Adurna: water
    alfa: elf
    kona: woman
    bjart: bright
    skular: scales, scaled one
    raudhr: red
    deyja: die
    drottningu: princess
    lunaea: smooth
    namar: name
    aurboda: banishing
    edur: a tor or prominance
    elrun: thank
    elda: a gender-neutral suffix of great praise
    eldhrimner: grow
    nuanen: beautiful
    dautr: daughter
    solus: sun
    thringa: rain
    allr: all
    sjon: see
    fortha: forth
    vara: spring
    feon: flower
    weohnatai: would
    fairth: picture
    fell: mountain
    flauga: fly
    fram: forward
    onr: your
    eddyr: am
    ganga: go
    aptr: backward
    letta: stop
    kongur: king
    malthinae: bind
    kuldr: gold
    unin: into
    bollr: ball
    kveykva: lightning
    maela: quiet
    naina: make bright
    nen: as
    thaefathan: chicken
    ilumio: truth
    thorta: speak
    vakna: awaken
    nangoroth: blasted
    Nosu: us
    Hornya: listeners, listen
    Blothr: halt, stop
    Brakka: reduce
    Vanyali: magic
    Sem: that
    Fyrn: war
    Dvergar: dwarf
    Ebrithil: master
    Eyddr: empty
    Eyreya: ears
    Sem: that
    Thorna: arrow
    Sem: with
    Hlaupa: run
    Hljodhr: run
    Kodthr: catch
    Kvetha: greetings
    Orya: those
    Losna: loose, release
    Sverdar: sword
    Hvass: sharp
    Stydja: rest
    Mor’ranr: peace
    Unin: in
    Vindr: air
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  3. Fraggle Rocker Staff Member

    It looks like it's supposed to be related to Old Norse.
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  5. CheskiChips Banned Banned

    I think that fits with the movie.
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  7. Fungezoid Banned Banned

    Actually, it is related to Old Germanic.
  8. Fraggle Rocker Staff Member

    We don't really use the term "Old Germanic." The reconstructed hypothetical ancestor of all the Germanic languages is called Proto-Germanic. When some of the Germanic tribes migrated down from Scandinavia to the main part of Europe in the first millennium BCE, they went off in three directions and their languages gradually diverged. The language of the people who came down and headed east is called East Germanic; the various Gothic tribes were in that group, and their languages eventually died out, although a few monks managed to write them down so they're not completely lost. The language of the people who came down and went west is called West Germanic. Those are the people who made their mark on history, becoming the most well-known German tribes, such as the Allemani, the Franks, the Angles and the Saxons. English, German, Dutch, Frisian and Yiddish are West Germanic languages.

    The people who stayed home in Scandinavia spoke North Germanic. Their language resisted divergence for many centuries, and even today Danes, Swedes and Norwegians can understand each other's languages with far less effort than, say, a Spaniard and an Italian. Icelandic is the most conservative of all the Scandinavian languages, and has changed very little from Old Norse, which was spoken and written well into the Common Era and for all practical purposes was the nearly unchanged original North Germanic language. It preserves phonetics, grammar and vocabulary that the other Germanic languages lost long ago. It has the TH sound that all Germanic languages except English lost nearly two thousand years ago, and it is relatively free of borrowings from Latin and French.

    Old Norse gives us a better clue into the structure and vocabulary of Proto-Germanic than our reconstructed guesses at the original West Germanic language, which never had a chance to be written before it began diverging into English, Dutch, German and extinct Frankish.

    So when we want to imagine what the language of the Germanic tribes was before their diaspora into sub-Scandinavian Europe, we naturally look at Old Norse. A writer who wants to evoke the sounds and spirit of the pre-Roman Teutonic tribesman will use Old Norse as a resource.
  9. Arachnakid Linguist-In-Training Registered Senior Member

    Wow. This is all really fascinating since my family comes from Scandanavia. I didn't know the germanic languages migrated south, I thought it was the other way around.
  10. Atopos Registered Member

    It actually came south-west from what could be today's russia, and then north to Scandinavia. BTW, Eragon old language is pretty much a mixture of german, few old norse words, finnish words and some latin ones as well, a pastiche of everything.
  11. Fraggle Rocker Staff Member

    Judging from the words that have been inherited by all Indo-European languages, the original speakers of the ancestral Indo-European language started out somewhere in the vicinity of Anatolia (eastern Turkey), give or take a few hundred miles. The Eastern Branch migrated east and south, and were the ancestors of the Persian, Indic and Slavic peoples.

    The Western Branch came north. It was always assumed that they sailed across the Bosporus into the Balkans, but new archeological evidence suggests that they came the long way around the Black Sea on foot and then headed west out of Siberia.

    The Celts were the first Indo-European tribes to arrive in Europe, perhaps as long ago as 3000BCE. With the newer technologies they brought from the fringes of Mesopotamian civilization, such as iron metallurgy, they easily marginalized the older ethnic groups who were established there, to the extent that we have very little evidence of them except tantalizing bits like Stonehenge, and their only surviving descendants, the mysterious Basques.

    The Celts had the continent to themselves for more than a thousand years and even populated the British Isles, when the Greek tribes showed up around 2000BCE. They repeated the process with even newer Mesopotamian technology such as writing, and began muscling the Celts out of their homeland.

    Bear in mind that even though Mesopotamian civilization was a few thousand years old when the Indo-Europeans started migrating, they were a nomadic people on the Mesolithic-Neolithic cusp, or at least they regressed to that stage and made their journeys without wheels or draft animals. You lose a lot of your culture on a trip like that, if only because you can't carry much with you. So when the Greeks (and the Etruscans before them, a people about whom we know very little) built a civilization of their own based on ideas they borrowed from the Phoenicians and other seafaring people with whom they traded, they jumped through a Paradigm Shift and left the Celts in the dust.

    It's not clear when the Roman tribes arrived or what route they took, and some anthropologists and linguists wonder if they weren't merely an especially precocious Celtic tribe. They took Greek civilization and fine-tuned it, and turned it into an empire, encroaching on the Celts all over Europe.

    Meanwhile, sometime before 1000BCE, the Germanic tribes took the long, cold route toward Europe and established a homeland in Scandinavia. They must have passed through the lands of the Finnic tribes (the ancestors of the Finns, Estonians and Sami or "Lapps") along the way, since they've been in that region for possibly ten thousand years. But somehow both peoples survived the encounter. Then around 1000BCE they found their way to Jutland and began expanding into the main landmass of Europe from the north. As nomads, they eventually ran head-on into the Roman Empire, and the resulting clash was really bad news for the few Celtic tribes who were still hanging on in Iberia, Gallia (southern France) and Bohemia (the land of the Bohumil, a Celtic tribe).

    The Celts were swept aside and survived as a distinct people only on the British Isles, as the Germanic tribes and the Roman legions divided Europe between them in the early years CE. When the Roman Empire declined and the Legionnaires abandoned Britannia, the Germanic Angles, Saxons and Jutes promptly sailed over and renamed it Angle Land, leaving the Celts, the former masters of all Europe, with only Ireland, Wales, Cornwall and a few islands, and eventually Scotland, which Irish adventurers seized from the pre-Indo-European Picts around 1300 years ago. ("Scoti" was actually the Roman name for the Irish people.)

    It wasn't until about this time, the early years CE, that the Slavic tribes established a homeland in the Ukraine and then began pushing westward into eastern Europe. Another Indo-European tribe, the Albanians, established their country as well, although how they got there is a bit of a mystery, at least to me.

    So except for the eternal Finns, the hardy Basques, and the Picts who were about to lose Scotland to the Celts, all of Europe was populated by Indo-Europeans about 2000 years ago. Then non-Indo-Europeans--various Mongol tribes--started muscling their way in, as the Roman Empire disintegrated and fragmented. The Huns and later the Magyars established an enduring beachhead in Hungary, or Magyarorszag as it's known within its borders. The Bulgars made a kingdom for themselves, but they abandoned their language and fraternized with their Slavic neighbors, so today most of us think they're just another Slavic nation. The Mongol Hordes themselves came pretty close to conquering Europe, abandoning their conquest at the gates of Vienna (and I'm not making this up) in order to go home to a royal funeral. Finally the Ottomans grabbed Greece and a big chunk of the Balkans and held onto it for centuries... as the Moors--a Semitic tribe--did to Iberia and some of the Mediterranean islands in an earlier era.

    Speaking of Semites, the Jews never established a distinct nation in Europe but they've hung onto their cultural identity since Roman times and must be counted as one of the non-Indo-European tribes to successfully settle there.

    So what are we left with in modern Europe as a result of all these Indo-European migrations? The Celts, the first Indo-Europeans to set foot on the continent, have been marginalized and in fact for a while were swallowed by the British Empire. The Greeks, who founded our civilization and once ruled from Egypt to Persia, still have Greece, and that's only because the Ottoman Empire collapsed. The Romans, who perfected Greek civilization and once controlled most of the continent... well Rome is not the center of the world like it once was, but a large and important chunk of our vocabulary is Latin, and several hundred million European people speak Romance languages. The mysterious Albanians still have Albania, although during the Ottoman occupation they adopted Islam, an artifact of Mideastern civilization. The Slavs have acquitted themselves well: the Russians had a mighty empire for several hundred years and then built a new one under communism, and most of eastern Europe is Slavic.

    But the Germanic people went on to be world leaders. Germany itself was a center of power after the Enlightenment and flared briefly in the 20th century before burning out in shame. The Vikings are legendary while their Swedish descendants have become iconic pacifists who sell us Volvos to protect us from harm while driving. The Saxon kingdom of England ruled the waves and much of the land for hundreds of years. We Americans have taken the torch from them and are still English at heart despite our Melting-Pot gene pool--just try attacking England one more time and you'll be the target of American nukes. So American civilization, which is said to be dominating the world, is really English civilization, a legacy of the Germanic tribes who came down from Scandinavia and fought the Romans to a draw.
    Last edited: Sep 28, 2008
  12. darksidZz Valued Senior Member

    That could be made into a movie!
  13. Fungezoid Banned Banned

    Nice post, Fraggle.

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