The presence of ions in the ionosphere is one thing. The fact that they form layers is another. Still another is that the position of the layers is influenced by the solar wind and ejecta. Still another is that the layers tend to absorb or reflect RF according to frequency. Still another is the variation in height of the layers, and their density, as a function of the angle to the solar wind. The non-ionized layers of the atmosphere are not involved. Sunlight and moonlight are irrelevant. It's the direction of the solar wind that matters, which we observe locally as the relative position of the sun. All you need is study and observation. Beliefs are mostly useless. By contrast scientists tend to trust their beliefs less and to trust the evidence more. Ideas like usefulness, film-structure and hoisting make no sense. If you've already made your mind up, why open a discussion with people here, especially scientists? Is there a propagation myth that you intend to bust? Is there no valid science for you to refer to? Not sure what you mean. "Ignorant natives" :bugeye: "blessed science" :shrug: "obfuscation" Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! This is a place for intelligent discussion. In part that relies on not assuming too much and checking oneself for accuracy. This also assumes a kind of responsibility - one that seeks to avoid posting fallacies so other folks won't be misled into believing them. There have been several attempts to lead you to certain information you lack. You fail to recognize the talent of the folks who've taken time to help you understand.