That you take the map for the territory (in the sense of math vs the world (or reality in other terms)) seems highly plausible in this context. I see how you would think that, but generally we understand that when a dice is thrown there is a cause as to why a certain number appears, in other words; random is a word (in plain english) to describe the result of many fluid variables that are very hard to predict (fluid in the sense that they too are often described by many other variables). Magic, however is generally understood as something uncaused, much the same as you are describing random! When a magician does his trick he strives to make you believe it was magic (uncaused) while in fact it is a trick. That's the difference between tricks and magic. The trick is simply to make you think it is uncaused (a flower suddenly appears, a person is split in two, etc.). When something happens in which we can't find the cause we might think it's magic, etc... A more accurate description of radiation (if following your understanding (and in some cases even shared with the scientific community)) would therefor be that it is magic. If there is no cause then how could it happen at different times? There must be a change of something in order for something to happen! Rain has a cause (obviously) but is impossible to predict (random) because the variables are numerous that controls the system (weather) that gives rise to the rain, radioactive decay is impossible to predict and in this case random but not random as in have no cause (it is the difference between those that I'm trying to show you!) the cause for radioactive decay is vacuum fluctuations which disturbs an unstable atom (giving it energy for the decay), I'm not sure about the others you provided, but given that the natural order of things is to have a cause (why did this event take place? Why now instead of any other time? All events that begs these questions must have some kind of cause). Anything that has a difference in manifestation must have a reason for that difference, there must be some selection process that selects how and when something will manifest itself. Or it would either; manifest itself the same always and always manifest itself, or never manifest itself (cause there is nothing). Rain doesn't always manifest the same, atoms have different stability, etc., Rain doesn't always happen, atoms doesn't always radiate. There must be a reason for this irregularity. Law of large numbers (or law of averages) has a definite cause and can only be used when dealing with a large number of events. It only has applications when there are some stability of the system, that rain is more likely to happen on a thursday because all the averages of a specific time-period happen to land on a wednesday (and even stabilise itself on a wednesday as averages of larger values makes the expected day less likely to change) doesn't mean that it is more likely to rain on a wednesday than any other day. Name one of those probabilities and I'll try finding the cause. Reality (that which is real). For any sake of argument it is reality as long as it is real - even if there are no external reality, but that would probably be beyond the scope of this thread, unless we make up our own reality, which we don't as far as I know.