Often science will use the words random and chance to describe evolution of mankind yet not once have they ever proved that these two words have any reality to them at all. Not once have they proved mathematcially that chance and random-ness are real and not merely imaginary mathematical conveniences. [That ironically enough have to be determined using mathematics any way!] So I ask, if evolution is not subject to chance and random-ness then what has it been subject to and is subject to? If not chance then only one ultimate conclusion can be made.IMO....about how such a complex organism such as the humanoid form can evolve when chance and randomness are no longer relevant. By logical extension this implies that a deterministic universal paradigm can be the only conclusion regarding the determinism debate. what say you?