Warren, I don't think you understand. Yes, your story is correct. If you heat up the beaker, the bits and peices will not come together and reform the bacteria. It is a crazy notion that it might (again common sense would tell you that). That is not what I am saying. First lets look at known data. This experiment has happen. They have used electricity to fuse molecules together (in particule, RNA). This chain of molecules has been shown to have enzymatic activity. Enzymatic activity is shown to be involved with replicating (as with RNA, replicating itself). Once replication start, the chance of evolution now comes into play. Now, how did all of this get into a bound membrane, I don't know. I don't study this stuff. But the point I am trying to make is that there is sound data that supports all of this. The process of abiogenesis took probablly millions or billions of years. I'm talking about going from simple molecules to, let say, something similar to a virus, or even the most simple of bacteria. If evolution is card stacking, so be it (I'm not sure what you ment by that). Maybe it was a few different process that converged, and found symbiosis more advantages, thus birth of life. I don't know, again I don't study this stuff. But there is data that could be used to derive a theory. From a theory to a hypothesis, than designing test to disprove that hypothesis. It is possible. It is science. I also predict that if artificial life is made in a lab, that it will be designed (your right on this in other words). Why? Well most scientist don't want to set up a huge beaker and wait another billion years to see if that works. It will be built and design so that they get what they want in a resonable time. It just makes common sense that it will be built like a machine. Also, it would be easier this way. If scientist tried to creat life the exact way nature did, it would be to difficult. To many variables could go wrong. They would have to stimulate the components in a certain order, in a certain time, using certain condition. Probably a lot of waiting so that evolution could take place. I guess they could go and mutate the right DNA nucleotide at the right time, but that would be difficult, and fall under design, so you would have to wait for natural evolution. As you can see, there is that time issue again. Who knows how long one would have to wait. Not saying that they couldn't figure it out, but why do something like that when building it like one would a machine would be easier. Most scientist I know have an opean mind. They will listen to all theories, but can only accept scientifically sound ones. Those are the ones that can be tested. I am not saying that your wrong on your theory. Design could happen, and it may very well have happened. Hell, it could be a combination of science and ID. One could argue that an intelecual supernatural being could use the rules of physics, evolution, etc.. and used that to create (or design) the very life that science has predicted. It just that ID can not be tested. That is all this is about. Where to put things. ID is a philosophy, not science.