Sorry. Been swamped at work. Our fiscal year ends Friday. And I won't have any time until probably Monday or Tuesday night. I will try to provided reasonable answers to your questions then. In the meantime QW ... if you wouldn't mind, please take a moment to review the material at this link. http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/1002/1002.4278v3.pdf I suggested several years ago that rather than some mysterious force ... dark energy ... acting upon space, a more reasonable hypothesis might be that space itself, with it's inherent energy (which we do know about) was working to spread the matter/energy apart, trying to "smooth out the gravitational wrinkles". I sent my model to both Frampton and Smoot proposing this alternative to the dark energy hypothesis. I have no idea if they read it, as they never responded, but around a year later they published the above paper ... which theorizes essentially the same thing. From the paper ... Conclusions We have proposed a theory underlying the accelerated expansion of the universe based on entropy and entropic force. This approach, while admittedly heuristic, provides a physical understanding of the acceleration phenomenon which was lacking in the description as dark energy. The evidence and general arguments supporting our hypothesis were presented in xIII. In addition we considered an interesting phenomenological model, loosely based on surface terms in xIV, and showed the models are capable of providing a good fit to the supernova data. Following the above arguments to their logical conclusion, the accelerated expansion rate is the inevitable consequence of the entropy associated with the holographic information storage on a surface screen placed at the horizon of the universe. An interesting question is: how does this entropic viewpoint of cosmic acceleration impact on inflationary theory? By the way, I checked in on Frampton and Smoot the other night (while I was putting together my responses to your questions) to see if there were any follow up papers. Astonished to find Frampton under house arrest in Argentina after being convicted of having 2 kilos of cocaine in his bags ... http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/wor...gling-charges-is-naive-fool-says-ex-wife.html Perhaps this is old news to you ... In any case, the above science paper is relevant to your questions.