I found a pdf file summary of the four fundamental forces. >> http://www.ph.rhbnc.ac.uk/course_materials/PH154/Forces.pdf From some searching on google; apparently, the "Chiral Condensate" refers to the state of matter at low temperatures. Chiral seems to refer to the symmetry of different flavors of quarks (up, down, etc.), and 'condensate' refers to the breaking of this symmetry at low temps. From what I understand, this leads to "CP violation" which is being explored as a possible reason why the universe is made of "matter" rather than "antimatter" -- because at the level of quarks, the transitions between quarks vs anti-quarks isn't symmetric (i.e., "broken") so that the transitions favor the 'production' of matter. Here's is a link that somewhat explains some of particle physics: >> http://www.physto.se/~lbe/enm/higgs.htm A simpler article that explains the concept of "symmetry": >> http://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/lhcb-public/html/symmetry.htm That's all I "half" understood. Need to do a lot more reading. Anyone know any QCD that can explain this better? Also, can you explain what it means to say that there is symmetry? what are the different types of symmetries that phycists usually look for? what are the important ones? Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image!