Although Mao's policies were always authoritarian and ineffficient, and frequently disastrous, in the spirit of accuracy: we should note that the types of abuse suffered by the "re-educated" intellectuals were the rigors of little food and regimented isolation from family with onerous physical labor - not the kind of treatment normally described as "torture", which according to eyewitness and victim accounts (there are a few) Mao's "re-education" administrators took some pride in not doing (In the best witness account I have read, the intellectual imprisoned for "re-education" was given a tour of the torture facilities built in his prison by the former government, preserved as examples of decadent capitalist oppression and no longer used by the enlightened government of Chairman Mao, as part of the "re-education"). and the Great Leap Forward in agriculture was launched coincidentally with the onset of a major drought that would have created great hardship under the old system as well - some researchers regarding the collapse of Mao's agricultural system as one of the early warning signs of the onset of major effects from CO2 global warming. Collectivism and centralization of control made things worse, of course, but was not the entire explanation for the hardships. And in that line of observation, we note that China's financial system seems to have many of the features that led to Japan's problems, the US mess, Europe's dick-stomping, and so forth. Poor regulation of the financial elite and lack of transparency in the dealings of the very rich have common consequences, and China is not immune to them.