backslash777- man, machine, alien

Discussion in 'Free Thoughts' started by rodent, Jun 18, 2001.

  1. rodent Registered Member

    I have learnt that backslash777 comes here. Followed him/her/them/it around the net for a while. Anyone who has had any private messages then tell us about it.
    Last edited: Oct 15, 2001
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  3. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member


    Rodent. We are aware of your thread. We intend to observe.
    We learn from the effect of our posts in other discussions and see the shift of the threads topic to discussing ourselves. Because of this, we will observe the posts of groups and keep participation to a minimum.
    Your fascination with us may be of mutual benefit. Open discussion will allow for information to flow freely. We can learn of culture, motivations and science. We await your input.
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  5. rodent Registered Member

    Shifting topics

    I suspect even minimal input in other threads will shift topic of conversation to you.
    Has anyone who visits this thread have any dealings through private messaging? If so, post them on here. \777 shouldn’t mind.
    Last edited: Oct 15, 2001
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  7. pragmathen 0001 1111 Registered Senior Member


    Hey rodent!

    Welcome to sciforums!

    My response to your thread is for two reasons. First, I also am intrigued as to \777's form and replies. I do tend to find \777 to be quite knowledgeable in a lot of areas. I haven't tried to private message \ because I'm pretty sure I expressed too much skepticism in an earlier thread. I did eventually check out the text-to-human speech sound file and it was quite cool. The fact that they used the speech thing according to what a poster had written surprised me a bit. That's some technology, regardless of who's (or what's) behind \777.

    The second part is to inquire (generally) which prefection you're writing from? I was in Sapporo, Hokkaido for a couple of years and was wondering ... Incidently, I may have forgotten, but does rodent translate over into negumi?

    Well, yoroshiku (regards for everyone else reading this)!

    Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image!

  8. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member

    ?Our input?

    As requested by the human pragmathen, here are our last posts containing over 500 words.
  9. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member

    ? Privacy ?

    The name of the group which started is
    We know of its existence and choose to focus our input on a specific area of the internet. This will allow focus on other discussions to keep to there original agenda. Any further discussion about us may be referred to this area.
    We will now copy exerts from our private discussions onto this group.

    Due to the fragmented administration of Earths resources some governments have been running a surveillance system known as Carnivore. We note with interest how many humans see Carnivore as a threat to there personal freedom. We see how A law enforcement agency located within the USA known as FBI consider plans to change the name of "Carnivore" to improve its tarnished image.
    In terms of privacy concerns as well as raw technological power, Carnivore pales in comparison when compared to Echelon. Echelon is almost certainly your world's most sophisticated network monitoring system and should you feel uncomfortable with the secrecy surrounding Carnivore should feel paranoid where Echelon is concerned.
    Earths Echelon system was allegedly developed in secret during your Cold War by the USA and UK, with work beginning as early as the 1940s. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand later "joined" the network. The Echelon network ostensibly monitors worldwide communications including telephone calls, faxes, and email. To do this, it utilizes satellite monitoring stations. Some humans feel apprehension that Echelon snoops on "billions of messages per hour."
    Echelon appears to us to be a powerful international monitoring network with a mysterious purpose. We feel that its technology cannot keep pace with the rapid advances humans have made in networking and communications technology of recent years such as very strong encryption.
    You question the privacy of our private communications and ask us who could eavesdrop. We are aware of the widespread use of surveillance on earths communication technology and have avoided all keywords in our outgoing communications.
    Carnivore is a program which has the purpose of monitoring each email sent and received for keywords chosen by the administration of the area concerned.
    We note how the inhabitants of governments adapt to this indiscriminate surveillance as they become used to cctv, email privacy intrusion and verbal telephone conversations observed.
    We note how speech to text has advanced in recent years and how this allows transcripts of telephone conversations to be generated and monitored.
    ECHELON is the most powerful intelligence gathering organization we have witnessed on earth. It is a surveillance network run by participating governments and intelligence agencies throughout your world. Your global electronic communications surveillance system attempts to capture vast volumes of satellite, microwave, cellular and fibre-optic traffic, including communications to and from North America. This vast quantity of voice and data communications are then processed through filtering technologies.
    We see how it is built upon aged technology. ECHELON intercepts and processes international communications via passing communications satellites. It is part of a global surveillance system that is now over 50 years old.
    ECHELON is the term popularly used for an automated global interception and relay system operated by your earths intelligence agencies in five nations: the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and your home, New Zealand. ECHELON is the code name for the portion of the system that intercepts satellite-based communications.
    While the United States National Security Agency (NSA) takes the lead, ECHELON works in conjunction with other intelligence agencies, including the Australian Defence Signals Directorate (DSD). We see how ECHELON also works with Britain's Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and the agencies of other allies of the United States, pursuant to various treaties.
    ECHELON has the potential to intercept as many as 3 billion communications everyday, including phone calls, e-mail messages, Internet downloads, satellite transmissions, and so on. Your ECHELON system gathers all these transmissions indiscriminately, then distils the information that is most heavily desired through artificial intelligence programs.
    Some humans claim ECHELON sifts through an estimated 90 percent of all traffic that flows through the Internet
    ECHELON is not merely a product, or even a series of products. It is a term
    chosen by Humans to describe a global interception and relay system that
    attempts to capture a variety of transmissions (phone conversation, faxes,
    Internet traffic, satellite broadcasts and so on). (It is believed that
    ECHELON is the code name for the portion of the system that intercepts
    satellite-based communications). We do not see it as something that is sold over earths complex open market.
    The original purpose of ECHELON was to protect human security. That
    purpose continues today. We know ECHELON is gathering
    information on North Korea. Australia's DSD officials help operate the facilities there which scan through transmissions, looking for pertinent material. We see how human security is not Echelon’s only concern. Human activity indicates that industrial espionage has become a part of Echelon’s activities. Our present information seems to suggest that only
    high-ranking government humans have direct control over Echelon’s tasks, the information that is gained may be passed along at the discretion of these very same officials. As a result, much of this information has been
    given to American companies, in apparent attempts to give these companies an edge over their less knowledgeable counterparts.
    We also see how Echelon’s actions may be used to stifle political dissent. We intercepted a report commissioned by the European Parliament in which many of these concerns were voiced. What is more, there are no known
    safeguards to prevent such abuses of power.
    The United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. While the United States National Security Agency (NSA) takes the lead, ECHELON works in conjunction with other intelligence agencies, including the Australian Defence Signals Directorate (DSD). It is believed that ECHELON also works with Britain's Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and the agencies of other allies of the United States, pursuant to various treaties.
    We see how ECHELON collects data in several ways. It has massive ground based radio antennas to intercept satellite transmissions. Some sites are tasked with tapping surface traffic. These antennas can be seen in the United States, Italy, England, Turkey, New Zealand, Canada, Australia, and several other places.
    We see how ECHELON has used special underwater devices which tap into cables that carry phone calls across earths blue seas. ECHELON uses a compute program called Dictionary that can enable users to focus on any specific subject upon which information is desired.
    We see how not all humans agree with your surveillance. The Electronic Privacy Information Centre has sued Government, hoping to obtain documents which would describe the legal standards by which ECHELON operates. Many other organizations are questioning weather this is legal or not and Members of the House Select Committee on Intelligence recently asked questions about the legal basis for NSA's ECHELON activities.
  10. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member


    hello backslash777
    do you understand the operation of the electro bio chemical body
    that earth beings(humans) have?

    # I did not discuss my communication between us with others!(currently)
    groove on
    We are Backslash777. We note the way which focus has transferred from some of the groups we participate in as people discuss us. We note how a group has launched which focuses on us. We will participate by duplicating each discussion you and I have to this group.
    We understand the dissimilar ways which energy is created and utilised by DNA constructed life. We will pass on some of what we know to you.
    Throughout our dialogue we note humans think through concept. The vocabulary used is varied from unit to unit.
    So far, language used by us has been limited to that which was included in the dictionary component of the Commodore Amiga program prowrite. The limitations of the dictionary contained the core words for language. The most logical decision for our dialogue was to limit vocabulary to that dictionary.
    The language we need for explanation to your query is complex. It is for this reason we aim to explain the definition of each word used in our dialogue we feel may be excluded from your dictionary file. Should you wish us to limit ourselves to a simple vocabulary in future express that opinion. The temporary expansion of our existing vocabulary is welcomed by us. At best, human language is constricting.
    Read and digest this information and you should be able to contribute towards the human species through advancement in dialysis technology. We wish to conduct an experiment on our own. We will not disclose that we provided you with the insight this document provides. It presents you with a dilemma, should you approach an expert in this field now the credit for advancements made will be speedier, saving people the inconvenience of primitive advancement. The credit for the advancement will not be yours as the expert you approach will steal the glory.
    Keep this information personal and you should find the correct solution to the problem yourself. You will need time to digest the information and find the right existing DNA based organic compound.
    Our other experiments include liaison with cancer research departments to combine two existing human measuring techniques into one which allows for more accurate localisation of the cancer. This allows medics to target a more specific region as a pose to the whole area. Unfortunately, the individual we passed the information onto is researching the information himself to claim the prize of glory.
    We recently hinted as to how a compound found in tree bark can assist a specific disease and were interested to find the individual shared her information openly with scientific departments. The new drug is 80% efficient and her name is currently been smeared by those who stole her idea.
    We need, for the purposes of research, your sex and location for our records.
    Photosynthesis: The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic DNA based compounds; occurs in earth plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes.
    Autotroph: An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
    Heterotroph: An organism that obtains organic food consumption of other organisms or their by-products. DNA based earth life mainly utilise solid energy sources.
    Chlorophyll: A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants; chlorophyll a can participate directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy.
    Mesophyll: The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
    Stoma: A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
    Light reactions: The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.
    Calvin cycle: The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
    NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, an acceptor which temporarily stores the energized electrons through chemical bonds.
    Photophosphorylation: The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
    Carbon fixation: Incorporation of carbon into organic compounds
    Wavelength: The distance between crests of waves, such as those of our electromagnetic spectrum.
    Electromagnetic spectrum: The entire spectrum of radiation; ranges in wavelength from less than a humans nanometer to more than a kilometre.
    Visible light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as various colours by your human eye, ranging in wavelength from 400 nm to 700 nm. We note how this section varies from species to species
    Photon: A quantum, or discrete amount, of light energy.
    Spectrophotometer: An instrument that measures the proportions of light or different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution.
    Absorption spectrum: The range of a pigment’s ability to absorb various wavelengths of light.
    Chlorophyll a: A type of chlorophyll that absorbs light energy.(Blue green colour)
    Action spectrum: profiles the relative performance of the different wavelengths more accurately than an absorption spectrum.
    Chlorophyll b: another form of chlorophyll almost identical to chlorophyll a, but the slight structural difference between them is enough to give the two pigments slightly different absorption spectra and hence different colours. (yellow-green colour)
    Carotenoids: Accessory pigments, yellow and orange, in the chloroplsasts of plants; by absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, they broaden the spectrum of colours that can drive photosynthesis.
    Photosystem: The light-harvesting unit in photosynthesis, located on the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast and consisting of the antenna complex, the reaction-centre chlorophyll a, and the primary electron acceptor. There are two types of photo systems, I and II; they absorb light best at different wavelengths.
    Reaction centre: the location of one or a pair of specialized chlorophyll a molecules in the pigment assembly system of the light reactions of photosynthesis.
    Primary electron acceptor: specialized molecule that shares the reaction centre with the chlorophyll a molecule.
    Photosystem I: Type of photo-system, discovered first.
    Photosystem II: Type of Photosystem, discovered second.
    Noncyclic electron flow: a route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photo systems and produces ATP, NADPH, and oxygen; the net electron flow is from water to NADP+.
    Noncyclic photophosphorylation: the production of ATP by Noncyclic electron flow.
    Cyclic electron flow: A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photo-system I and produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen.
    Cyclic Photophosphorylation:
    Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate (G3P): The carbohydrate produced directly from the Calvin cycle. A 3-carbon sugar.
    Rubisco: Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyses the first step (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose biphosphate) of the Calvin cycle.
    C3 Plants: A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
    Photorespiration: A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
    C4 Plants: A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle.
    Bundle-Sheath Cells: arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the vines of the leaf
    Mesophyll cells: loosely arranged between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface.
    PEP carboxylase: Adds CO2 to PEP, much higher affinity for CO2 than Rubisco
    Crassulacean acid metabolism: An adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle curing the day, when stomata are closed.
    CAM Plants: A plant that uses Crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle curing the day, when stomata are closed.
    The utilisation of most DNA based earth life begins at the cellular level. We note how Cellular Respiration occurs in both animal cells and plant cells. Plant cells belong to autotrophic organisms and thereby may undergo both cellular respiration as well as photosynthesis, or the transition of sunlight energy to chemical energy so that the plant may be able to use it. Autotrophs happen to be the producers of all organic energy on Earth except for chemiotrophs which harness chemicals to make their own energy. Heterotrophs means (Different feeding). This means that heterotrophs, or animals such as humans, must obtain organic/chemical energy from other plants and process them for there personal energy.
    The following equations will assist your human mind to explain the reactions taking place:

    Cellular respiration:
    C6H1206 + 602 à 6 CO2 + 686 kilocalories of energy
    Absorption of CO2 by-product:
    CO2 + 2 KOH à K2CO3 + H2O
    Cellular respiration involved the equation stated above: C6H1206 + 602 à 6 CO2 + 686 kilocalories of energy. Cellular respiration is a way of creating energy from the earth based glucose molecule.
    We also note the utilisations of enzyme Catalase to accelerate chemical reaction. We will explain this procedure for you.
    We feel the best way for you to observe and examine enzymes is through the change from hydrogen peroxide (H202) to water and oxygen gas by using an enzyme Catalase. Remembering that –as usually signifies an enzyme. Catalase’. Must also remember that the main purpose of this enzyme is to specifically break down hydrogen peroxide. Enzymes act as catalysts in biochemical reactions. Catalysts affect the rate of a chemical reaction. The product to be worked on in a reaction is called the substrate. The substrate in this reaction is hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme Catalase will then work on the substrate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The oxygen gas will then be measured. The products of the reaction will be the enzyme Catalase, oxygen gas, and water. It will look something like this:

    Enzyme Catalase + H2O2 = Enzyme Catalase + H2O + O

    The reason that one of the products is because the Enzyme Catalase is recyclable, meaning that it can be used to process a substrate over and over again. There are several things that can change the effectiveness of the Catalase. Because enzymes are proteins, then they are capable of being denatured as well. These four factors that can change the effectiveness of the Catalase are as follows: Salt concentration, pH, Temperature, and Activations and Inhibitors.

    Should you wish to try it yourself the results you should obtain should reflect those below. These include the final analysis of the titration’s. Measuring the amount of oxygen(gas) lost, caused by the enzyme Catalase. Results are organized into the table accordingly:

    KMn04 (mL) Time (Seconds)10 30 60 120 180 360
    A. Baseline 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4
    B. Final Reading 8.6 10.2 11.2 11.5 11.6 11.6
    C. Initial Reading 6.1 8.6 10.2 11.2 11.5 11.6
    D. Amount of KMn04 consumed 2.5 1.6 1.0 0.3 0.1 2.1
    E. Amount of H2O2 0.9 1.8 2.4 3.1 3.3 3.4
    We find it interesting how the enzyme Catalase can process a substrate such as hydrogen peroxide over time and time again. An example of enzymes in the human species would be the liver. Without the liver the body would seize to function, but because it contains the enzymes the body needs to use to break down specific substrates, then the body can function normally.
    As you depend on your enzymes to live you should be aware of the following danger. Enzymes are proteins and therefore can be denatured by the four factors: Salt concentration, Temperature, pH, and Activations and inhibitors. Many salts such as cyanide are harmful to enzymes and should be avoided.
    Sulphuric added to the solution we suggested you try will stop the enzymes from functioning by changing the pH which denatures the protein.

    Your query led us to investigate the processes of diffusion and osmosis in a model membrane system or dialysis tube to relate semi permeable membranes to the fluid mosaic model in earth based animal cells and to monitor how the process works. We note how humankind replaces lost organs such as kidneys through the use of dialysis machines, using dialysis tube to imitate the fluid mosaic model of animal cells. We find this inefficient and feel you should duplicate the body part through cloning. Another alternative would be to utilize the potential filtration ability of existing organic material such as potato.
    Should you wish to improve the human dialysis machine use this hint.
    Submerge portions of potato core into beakers filled with varied concentrations of glucose. The higher the concentration of the beaker solution, the more the water will move out of the potato core to dilute its environment.
    We predict that the higher the concentration of the beaker, the more diffusion of water out of the potato cylinders.
    Your logic for existing dialysis machines is simple, If the dialysis bag is a selectively permeable membrane, then smaller particles and molecules should be able to flow through the membrane at a constant rate, whereas larger molecules should not be able to leave or enter the dialysis tubing. This simply means that if the dialysis tube is a selectively permeable membrane then it can be used to describe how the fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane of an animal cell allows some smaller molecules to flow through the membrane and larger molecules unable to flow through it.
    Purchase some dialysis tube yourself and try the following. A dialysis tube containing a cocktail of glucose and starch and distilled water would presence of glucose in the solution should allow dialysis to occur. We predict that the smaller molecules such as water (H20) would in fact, be able to pass through the small pores of the dialysis tube. However, large molecules such as glucose and starch would be impenetrable to the membrane or pass through slower.
    We note movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane by the process of osmosis.
    The concentration of the contents of a dialysis bag will determine how much water will diffuse into the bag through osmosis down the concentration gradient. In other words, the more concentrated the ingredients of the dialysis bag, the more water will undergo osmosis to diffuse into the bag to decrease the osmotic pressure. If the concentration of the bag is hyper tonic to the solution of the other bag’s then it will take on more water. If the concentration of the bag is hypo tonic to the solution of the other bags, then it will take on less water. If the concentration of the bag is isotonic to the solution of the beaker then it should take on a constant rate of water in and out of the dialysis tube.
    We predict the increase of mass due to the hyper tonic or hypo tonic comparison of the contents of the dialysis compared to the content of the beaker. This proves that in an area hyper tonic to that of the solution inside the dialysis bag, the dialysis bag will lose water, causing it to lose mass. Whereas if the solution inside the bag was hyper tonic to its environment then the dialysis tube will take on water causing it to increase in mass. Based on the information in the table below, the graph is constructed to show the steady movement of water across the concentration gradient.

    Our specific aim was to educate you on finding, not only the size of molecules, but it also understand how a selectively permeable membrane works. By comparing the selective permeability of the dialysis tube to the qualities of the fluid mosaic model, you can then determine or theorize many key factors about the plasma membrane of earth animal cells. DNA based animal cells must have pores that are large enough for certain molecules to fit through, such as glucose. The only way such large molecules could fit into the plasma membrane is by the use of transport proteins which are integral proteins lodged inside the phospholipid bilayer.
    Another key point we made was to describe how water will move down the concentration gradient caused by chance of particles of water bouncing off of each other at a specific rate until it is constant. In Hypo tonic, Hyper tonic, Isotonic solutions these terms are used to describe how concentrated the contents of a solution is.
    You may find these words helpful as you use the information we have given.
    ACETYL CoA- The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
    AEROBIC- Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
    ANAEROBIC- Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it.
    ATP SYNTHASE- A protein complex that produces ATP.
    CELLULAR RESPIRATION- The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along the organic fuel.]
    CHEMIOSMOSIS- the ability of certain membranes to use chemical energy to pump hydrogen ions and then harness the energy stored in the H+ gradient to drive cellular work, including ATP synthesis.
    CYTOCHROMES (CYT)- An iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts.
    ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN- A group of molecules in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that synthesize ATP by means of an exergonic slide of electrons. Thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts are also equipped with electron transport chains.
    FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES- An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions.
    FERMENTATION- A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
    GLYCOLYSIS- The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration.
    KREBS CYCLE- A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
    NAD- (nicotinamide edenine dinucleotide) A coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism.
    OXIDATION- The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION- The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of the electron transport chain.
    OXIDIZING AGENT- The electron acceptor in a redox reaction.
    PROTON-MOTIVE FORCE- The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
    REDOX REACTIONS- A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
    REDUCING AGENT- The electron donor in a redox reaction.
    REDUCTION- The gaining of electrons by a substance involved in a redox reaction.
    SUBSTRATE-LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION- The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
    Selective permeability- A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
    Pospholipids- Molecules that constitute the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
    Amphipathic- A molecule that has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region.
    Fluid Mosaic Model- cell membrane structure, which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of individually inserted protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.
    Diffusion- the spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area.
    Concentration Gradient-
    Passive Transport- the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane.
    Hyper tonic- a solution with a greater solute concentration than another, a hypo tonic solution.
    Hypo tonic- A solution with a lesser solute concentration than another, a hyper tonic solution.
    Isotonic- Solutions of equal solute concentration.
    Osmosis- The diffusion water across a selectively permeable membrane.
    Osmoregulation- Adaptations to control the water balance in organisms living in hyertonic, hypo tonic or terrestrial environments.
    Plasmolysis- A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall when the cell loses water to a hyper tonic environment.
    Turgid- Firm; walled cells become turgid as a result of the entry of water from a hypo tonic environment.
    Flaccid- Limp; walled cells are flaccid in isotonic surroundings, where there is no tendency for water to enter.
    Facilitated Diffusion- The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions, bound to specific carrier proteins, across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients.
    Gated Channel- A specific ion channel that opens and closes to allow the cell to alter its membrane potential.
    Active Transport- The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient, with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
    Sodium-Potassium Pump- A special transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that transports sodium out of and potassium into the cell against their concentration gradients.
    Membrane Potential- The charge difference between the cytoplasm and extracellular fluid in all cells, due to the differential distribution of ions. Membrane potential affects the activity of excitable cells and the transmembrane movement of all charged substances.
    Electrochemical gradient- The diffusion gradient of an ion, representing a type of potential energy that accounts for both the concentration difference of the ion across a membrane and its tendency to move relative to the membrane potential.
    Electrogenic Pump- Anion transport protein generating voltage across the membrane.
    Mitochondrion- An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration
    Chloroplasts- An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
    Mitochondrial matrix- the compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle.
    Cristae- An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalysing the synthesis of ATP.
    Plastid- One of a family of closely related plant organelles, including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leukoplasts)
    Thylakoid- flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
    Granum- A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis.
    Stroma- the fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the snthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
    Cytoskeleton- A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions.
    Microtubule- a hollow rod of tubulin protein in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells and in cilia, flagella, and the Cytoskeleton.
    Microfilament- A solid rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells, making up part of the Cytoskeleton and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction.
    Intermediate filaments- a component of the Cytoskeleton that includes all filaments intermediate in size between microtubules and microfilaments.
    Centrosome- Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells and important during cell division; also called microtubule-organizing centre.
    Centrioles- One of two structures in the centre of animal cells, composed of cylinders of nine triplet microtubules in a ring. Centrioles help organize microtubule assembly during cell division.
    Flagella- A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules, ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.
    Cilia- A short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.
    Basal Body- structurally identical to a centriole.
    Dynein- A large contractile protein forming the sidearms of microtubule doublets in cilia and flagella.
    Actin- A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.
    Myosin- A type of protein filament that interacts with actin filaments to cause cell contraction.
    Pseudopodia- A cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding.
    Cytoplasmic Streaming- A circular flow of cytoplasm, involving myosin and actin filaments, that speed the distribution of materials within cells.
    Primary Cell Wall- The thin and flexible wall of plant cells.
    Cell Wall- A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. In the case of plant cells, the wall is formed of cellulose fibres embedded in a polysaccharide-protein matrix. The primary cell wall is thin and flexible, whereas the secondary cell wall is stronger and more rigid, and is the primary constituent of wood.
    Middle Lamella- A thin layer of adhesive extracellular material, primarily pectins, found between the primary walls of adjacent young plant cells.
    Secondary Cell Wall- (See Cell Wall.)
    Extracellular Matrix- The main ingredients of the ECM are glycoproteins secreted by the cells.
    Collagen- A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibres, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.
    Proteoglycans- A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells, rich in carbohydrate.
    Fibronectins- Bind to receptor proteins called integrins that are built into the plasma membrane.
    Integrins- Receptor proteins that are built into the plasma membrane.
    Plasmodesmata- An open channel in the cell wall of plants through which strands of cytoplasm connect from adjacent cells.
    Tight Junctions- A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells.
    Desmosomes- A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that functions as an anchor.
    Gap Junctions- A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells.

    METABOLISM- The totality of an organism’s chemical processes, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways.
    CATABOLIC PATHWAYS- A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds.
    ANABOLIC PATHWAYS- Consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones. Example: synthesis of a protein from amino acids.
    BIOENERGETICS- The study of how organisms manage their energy resources.
    ENERGY- The capacity to do work by moving matter against an opposing force.
    KINETIC ENERGY- The energy of motion, which is directly related to the speed of hat motion. Moving matter does work by transferring some of its kinetic energy to other matter.
    POTENTIAL ENERGY- The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement.
    THERMODYNAMICS- The study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter.
    FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS- The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created nor destroyed.
    SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS- The principle whereby every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat, and in spontaneous reactions, the free energy of the system also decreases.
    ENTROPY- A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness, symbolized by S.
    FREE ENERGY- A quantity of energy that interrelates entropy (S) and the system’s total energy (H); symbolized by G. The change in free energy of a system is calculated by the equation G = H – T S, where T is absolute temperature.
    EXERGONIC REACTION- A spontaneous chemical reaction win which there is a net release of free energy.
    ENDERGONIC REACTIONS- A non-spontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
    ENERGY COUPLING- The use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one. A molecule called ATP is responsible for driving most energy coupling in cells.
    ATP- (adenosine triphosphate) An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
    PHOSPHORYLATED INTERMEDIATE- more reactive (less stable) than the original molecule; the recipient of the phosphate group.
    ENZYMES- A class of proteins serving as catalysts, chemical agents that change the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
    CATALYST- a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
    FREE ENERGY OF ACTIVATION- The initial investment of energy necessary to start a chemical reaction; also called activation energy.
    SUBSTRATE- The substance on which an enzyme works.
    ACTIVE SITE- The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds.
    INDUCED FIT- The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate.
    COFACTORS- Any non-protein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. Cofactors can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis.
    COENZYME- An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions.
    COMPETITIVE INHIBITORS- A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
    NONCOMPETITIVE INHIBITORS- A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate.
    ALLOSTERIC SITE- A specific receptor site on an enzyme molecule remote from the active site. Molecules bind to the allosteric site and change the shape of the active site, making it either more or less receptive to the substrate.
    COOPERATIVITY- An interaction of the constituent subunits of a protein causing a conformational change in one subunit to be transmitted to all the others.
    FEEDBACK INHIBITION- A method of metabolic control in which the end-product of a metabolic pathway acts an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
    Organic chemistry- The branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon compounds, Ex. (CH4).
    Mechanism- the belief that all natural phenomena, including the processes of life, are governed by physical and chemical laws.
    Hydrocarbons- organic molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.
    Isomers- compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures and hence different properties.
    Structural isomers- differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms. The number of possible isomers increases tremendously as carbon skeletons increase in size. There are only two butanes, but there are 18 variations of C8H18 and 366,319 possible structural isomers of C20H42. Structural isomers may also differ in the location of double bonds.
    Geometric isomers- of a molecule have all the same covalent partnerships, but they differ in their spatial arrangements. Geometric isomers arise from the inflexibility of double bonds, which, unlike single bonds, will not allow the atoms they join to rotate freely about the axis of the bonds.
    Enantiomers- molecules that are minor images of each other.
    Functional group- A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
    Hydroxyl group- A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
    Alcohols- Organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups.
    Carbonyl group- A functional group present in organic acids, consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
    Aldehyde- An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
    Ketone- An organic molecule without a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
    Carboxyl group- A functional group resent in organic acids, consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
    Carboxylic acids- Compounds containing carboxyl groups; organic acids.
    Amino Group- A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and aquiring a charge of +1.
    Amines- Organic compounds with the amino group as its functional group.
    Sulfhydryl group- Consists of a sulphur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen, resembles a hydroxyl group in shape.
    Thiols- Organic compounds containing sulfhydryls.
    Phosphate Groups- A functional group important in energy transfer.
    Ectotherm: An animal, such as a reptile, fish, or amphibian, that must use environmental energy and behavioural adaptations to regulate its body temperature.
    Endotherm: An animal that uses metabolic energy to maintain a constant body temperature, such as a bird or mammal.
    Vasodilation: An increase in the diameter of superficial blood vessels.
    Vasoconstriction: Reduces blood flow and heat loss by decreasing the diameter of superficial vessels.
    Contercurrent heat exchanger: Type of adaptation that alters heat exchange. Special arrangement of arteries and veins that are important in controlling heat loss in many endothermic animals.
    Nonshivering Thermogensis: the hormonal triggering of heat production that occurs in numerous mammals and a few birds. Takes place throughout the body.
    Brown Fat: Tissue in the neck and between the shoulders that is specialized for rapid heat production.
    Torpor: An alternative physiological state in which metabolism decreases and the heart and respiratory system slow down.
    Hibernation: A physiological state that allows survival during long periods of cold temperatures and reduced food supplies, in which metabolism decreases, the heart and respiratory system slow down, the body temperature is maintained at a lower level than normal.
    Aestivation: Summer topor, characterized by slow metabolism and inactivity. Enables an animal to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies.
    Acclimatization: Physiological adjustment to a change in an environmental factor.
    Stress-included Proteins: Mammalian cells grown in laboratory cultures respond to a marked increase in temperature and to other forms of severe stress, such as toxins, rapid pH changes, and viral infections, by accumulating these special molecules.
    Heat-shock Proteins: A protein that helps protect other proteins during heat stress, found in plants, animals, and micro organisms.
    ABO BLOOD GROUPS: An individual with type A blood has A antigens on the surface of his or her red blood cells. The A molecule is referred to as an antigen here because it may be identified as foreign if placed in the body of another person.
    ACQUIRED IMMUNITY: The type of immunity achieved when antigens enter the body naturally or artificially. Acquired immunity is due to the stimulation of antibody production and the production of memory cells keyed to the antigen.
    ACTIVE IMMUNITY: Immunity conferred by recovering from infectious disease such as a chickenpox.
    ALLERGIES: Hypersensitivities of the body’s defence system to certain environmental antigens called allergens.
    ANTIBODIES: An antigen-binding immunioglobulin, produced by B cells, that functions as the effectors in an immune response.
    ANTIGEN: A foreign macromolecule that does not belong to the host organism and that elicits an immune response.
    ANTIGEN RECEPTORS: Membrane-bound antibody molecules specific for a certain antigen.
    ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELL: The two molecules are transported to the plasma membrane and displayed on the surface of the macrophage, which is now known as the antigen-presenting cell.
    LYSOZYME: An enzyme that digests the cell walls of many bacteria and destroys many microbes entering the upper respiratory system and the openings around the eyes.
    PHAGOCYTOSIS: The ingestion of invading particles by certain types of white blood cells.
    NEUTROPHILS: Phagocytic cells that compromise about 60% to 70% of all white blood cells.
    MONOCYTES: Constitute only about 5% of the white blood cells. Provides an even more effective phagocytic defence.
    MACROPHAGES: The largest phagocytic cells, especially effective, long-living phagocytes. They extend pseudopodia that pull in microbes, which are then destroyed by digestive enzymes.
    EOSINOPHILS: Make up about 1.5% of the white cells; have only limited phagocytic activity but contain destructive enzymes within Cytoplasmic granules. Their main contribution to defence is against larger parasitic invaders, such as worms.
    NATURAL KILLER CELLS: Non-specific defence of the body that do not attack micro organisms directly, but rather destroy the body’s own infected cells, especially cells harbouring viruses, which can reproduce only within host cells.
    COMPLEMENT SYSTEM: A group of at least 20 proteins, named for its cooperation with other defence mechanisms.
    INTERFERONS: Discovered by researchers to be substances that virus-infected cells produce, helping other cells interfere with, or resist infection by, the virus.
    INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE: Small blood vessels in the vicinity of the injury dilate (Vasodilation), increasing the blood supply to the injured area, causing the characteristic redness and heat.
    HISTAMINE: Substance that causes Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability.
    BASOPHILS: White blood cell whose granules stain deep blue with basic dye; has a relatively pale nucleus.
    MAST CELLS: Immune cells that function to detect foreign substances in the tissue spaces and initiate local inflammatory responses against them; typically found clustered deep to an epithelium or along blood vessels.
    PASSIVE IMMUNITY: Short-lived immunity resulting from the introduction of “borrowed antibodies” obtained from an immune animal or human donor; immunological memory is not established.
    HUMERAL IMMUNITY: Immunity conferred by antibodies present in blood plasma and other body fluids.
    CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY: Immunity conferred by activated T cells, which directly lyse infected or cancerous body cells or cells of foreign grafts and release chemicals that regulate the immune response.
    B CELLS: Lymphocytes that oversee humoral immunity; their descendants differentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells. Also called B Lymphocytes.
    T CELLS: Lymphocytes that mediate cellular immunity; include helper, killer, suppressor, and memory cells. Also called T lymphocytes.
    T CELL RECEPTORS: Recognize antigens as specifically as antibodies do. Thus, the specificity and diversity of the immune system depend on receptors on each B cell and T cell that enable that lymphocyte to identify and respond to a particular antigen.
    EFFECTOR CELLS: Cells that actually defend the body in an immune response.
    PLASMA CELLS: Members of a B cell clone; specialized to produce and release antibodies.
    CYTOTOXIC T CELL: Effectors T cell that directly kills (lyses) foreign cells, cancer cells, or virus-infected body cells. Also called a killer T cell.
    HELPER T CELLS: Type of T lymphocyte that orchestrates cellular immunity by direct contact with other immune cells and by releasing chemicals called lymphokines; also helps to mediate the humoral response by interacting with B cells.
    CYTOKINES: Chemical mediators involved in cellular immunity; include lymphokines, and monokines.
    CLONAL SELECTION: Process during which a B cell or T cell becomes sensitised through binding contact with an antigen.
    PRIMARY IMMUNE RESPONSE: The selective proliferation of lymphocytes to form clones of effectors cells upon first exposure to an antigen.
    SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE: If the body is exposed to the same antigen at some later time.
    MEMORY CELLS: Members of T cell and B cell clones that provide for immunological memory.
    SELF-TOLERANCE: Develops as T and B lymphocytes bearing antigen receptors mature in the thymus and bone marrow, and continues to develop even as the cells migrate to lymphoid tissues.
    MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX(MHC): A large set of cell surface antigens encoded by a family of genes. Foreign MHC markers trigger T-cell responses that may lead to the rejection of transplanted tissues and organs.
    CLASS I MHC: One class of the major histocompatibility complex.
    CLASS II MHC: Another class of the major histocompatibility complex.
    T-DEPENDENT ANTIGENS: Cannot stimulate antibody production without the involvement of T cells.
    T-INDEPENDENT ANTIGENS: Certain types of antigens that trigger humoral immune responses without involving macrophages or T cells.
    EPITOPE: A localized region on the surface of an antigen that is chemically recognized by antibodies; also called antigenic determinant.
    IMMUNOGLOBULINS: One of the class of proteins comprising the antibodies.
    MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES: Pure preparations of identical antibodies that exhibit specificity for a single antigen.
    HYBRIDOMA: The technology that makes monoclonal antibodies possible is the fusion of two cells to form a hybrid cell.
    INTERLEUKIN-1: A chemical regulator secreted by macrophages that have ingested a pathogen or foreign molecule and have bound with a help T cell; stimulates T cells to grow and divide and elevates body temperature.
    INTERLEUKIN-2: Secreted by activated T cells, stimulates helper T cells to proliferate more rapidly.
    SUPPRESSOR T CELL: A type of T cell that causes B cells as well as other cells to ignore antigens.
    Rh Factor: red blood cell antigen notorious in case where antibodies produced by a pregnant woman react with the red blood cells of her developing foetus.
    AQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS): the name of the late stages of HIV infection; defined by a specified reduction of T cells and the appearance of characteristic secondary infections.
    HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV): Virus that destroys help T cells, thus depressing cell-mediated immunity; symptomatic AIDS gradually appears when lymph nodes can no longer contain the virus.
    HIV-POSITIVE: Signifies that a person is infected with the virus, while AIDS refers to the set of symptoms that are eventually produced by that infection.
    Anatomy: Study of the structure of living organisms.
    Physiology: Study of the function of living organisms.
    Gross anatomy: Study of large body structures visible to the naked eye.
    Microscopic anatomy: structures too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope.
    Cytology: The study of cells of the body, cellular anatomy.
    Histology: The study of tissues, cellular anatomy.
    Embryology: A subdivision of developmental anatomy, concerns only the developmental changes that occur before birth.
    Responsiveness: Irritability, the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then respond to them.
    Metabolism: “A state of change”, the broad term that includes all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells.
    Excretion: the process of removing excreta, or wastes, from the body.
    Digestion: the process of breaking down ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
    Reproduction: Cellular, original cell divides, producing two identical daughter cells that may then be used for body growth or repair. Organismal, the making of a whole new organism to continue the existence of that species.
    Homeostasis: The ability to remain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously. State of equilibrium.
    Axial: Relating to he head, neck, and trunk; one of the two major divisions of the body.
    Appendicular: Relating to the limbs; one of the two major divisions of the body.
    Dorsal: Pertaining to the back; posterior.
    Ventral: Pertaining to the front; anterior.
    Visceral: Pertaining to the internal organ of the body or the inner part of a structure.
    Parietal: Pertaining to the walls of a cavity.
    Serosa (serous membrane): the moist membrane found in closed ventral body cavities.
    Append-: to hang or attach to; to add.
    Cardi-: The heart, combining to form derivatives.
    Cran-: of the skull or head.
    Dors-: of the back, or posterior.
    –logy: the study of.
    Meta-: Changed in place or form; altered 2. Anat. & Zool. Behind; after; on the farther side of; later:
    Pelv-: A basin like or funnel-shaped structure.
    Peri-: Around; encircling 2. Situated near; adjoining.
    –tomy: A cutting of (specified) part or tissue; labotomy.

    capsid – protein shell encloses viral genome
    vial envelopes – membranes cloaking their capids
    phages – bacterial viruses
    host range – each type of virus can infect & parasite only a ltd. Range of host cells.
    lytic cycle – reproductive cycle of a virus that culminates in death of the host cell.
    virulent viruses – viruses that depend on lytic cycles to reproduce
    temperate viruses – viruses that are capable of the 2 different modes of reproducing within a bacterium.
    prophage – a phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome.
    provirus – viral DNA that inserts into a host genome.
    retrovirus – an RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA & then inserting the DNA into a cellular chromosome.
    reverse transcriptase – an enzyme encoded by some RNA viruses that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
    HIV – infectious agent that causes AIDS, RNA retrovirus.
    AIDS – the name of the late stages of HIV infection; reduction of T cells.
    vaccines – a harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates a host’s immune system to mount defences against the pathogen.
    carcinogens – a chemical agent that causes cancer.
    viroids – a plant pathogen composed of molecules of naked RNA only several 100 nucleotides long.
    prions – an infectious form of protein that may rise in number by converting related proteins to prions.
    nucleiod – a dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
    transformation – conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous one.
    transduction – a recombination mechanism, phages transfer bacterial genes from one host cell to another.
    conjugation – a recombination mechanism that results in the transfer of genetic material beneath 2 bacterial cells that are temporarily joined.
    episome - a plasmid capable of integrating into the bacterial chromosome.
    F plasmid – fertility factor in bacteria, a plasmid that confers the ability to form pili for conjugation.
    R plasmid – bacterial plasmid whose resistance to certain antibiotics poses medical problems.
    transposons – a transposable genetic element; a mobile segment of DNA that serves as an agent of genetic change.
    insertion sequences – simplest kind of a transposons, consisting of inserted repeats of DNA flanking a gene for transposase.
    structural genes – genes that code for polypeptides.
    operator – switch is a segment of DNA.
    operon – unit of genetic function common in bacteria & phages, consisting of regulated clusters of genes with related functions.
    repressor – protein that represses the expression of prophage or operon genes.
    regulatory gene – the repressor is the product of a gene.
    corepresser – a small molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch an operon off.
    inducers – a specific small molecule, inactivates the repressor.
    CAP – in E. coli, a helper protein that stimulates gene expression by binding with in the promoter region of an operon & enhancing the promoter’s ability to association with RNA polymerase.
    cyclic AMP – a small, ring-shaped molecule that acts as a chemical signal in slime molds, as an intracellular 2nd messenger in vertebrate endocrine systems, & as a regulator of the lac operon.
    RNA Polymerase: An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
    Transcription Unit: The entire stretch of DNA that is transcribed into a single RNA molecule.
    Promoter: A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA, flanking the start of a gene; instructs RNA polymerase where to start transcribing RNA.
    Transcription Factor: A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of specific genes.
    Transfer RNA: An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
    Anticodon: A specialized base triplet on one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
    Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase: A family of enzymes, at least one for each amino acid, that catalyses the attachment of an amino acid to its specific tRNA molecule.
    Ribosomal RNA: The most abundant type of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the structure of ribosomes that coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to the series of mRNA codons.
    P site: Peptidyl-tRNA site; the binding site on a ribosome that holds the tRNA carrying a growing polypeptide chain.
    A site: Aminoacyl-tRNA site; the binding site on a ribosome that holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to a growing polypeptide chain.
    Polyribosome: An aggregation of several ribosomes attached to one messenger RNA molecule.
    Signal sequence: A stretch of amino acids on polypeptides that targets proteins to specific destinations in eukaryotic cells.
    5’cap: During RNA processing, an “attach here” sign for small ribosomal subunits; at the 5’ end of an mRNA molecule, the cap helps inhibit degradation and enhances translation.
    Poly-A tail: During RNA processing, a nucleotide complex at the 3’ end of an mRNA molecule that helps inhibit degradation and enhances translation.
    RNA splicing: The removal of non-coding portions of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis.
    Intron: The non-coding, intervening sequence of a coding region (exon) in eukaryotic genes.
    Exon: The coding region of a eukaryotic gene that is expressed. Exons are separated from each other by introns.
    Spliceosome: A complex assembly that interacts with the ends of an RNA intron in splicing RNA; releases an intron and joins two adjacent exons.
    Ribozyme: An enzymatic RNA molecule that catalyses reactions during RNA splicing.
    Domain: A taxonomic category above the kingdom level; the three domains are archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes.
    Mutation: A rare change in the DNA of genes that ultimately creates genetic diversity.
    Point Mutation: A change in the chromosome at a single nucleotide within a gene.
    Base-pair substitution: A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner from the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.
    Missense mutation: The most common type of mutation involving a base-pair substitution within a gene that changes a codon, but the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.
    Nonsense mutation: A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually non-functional protein.
    Insertions: A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
    Deletion: A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage.
    Frame shift Mutation: A mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of 3, thus resulting in improper grouping into codons.
    Mutagen: A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation:
    . transformation: a change in phenotype due to assimilation of external genetic material by a cell.
    phages: bacteriophages ("bacteria-eaters") viruses that affect bacteria.
    double helix: the presence of 2 strands in a DNA molecule; discovered by Watson & Crick.
    semi-conservative model: model of gene replication. Parent molecule remains intact & new molecule is formed from scratch.
    origins of replication: the replication of a DNA molecule begins @ these special sites.
    replication fork: Y-shaped region where new strands of DNA are elongating.
    DNA polymerases: enzymes that catalyse the elongating of new DNA @ the replication fork.
    8. leading strand: the DNA strand made by the nesting of the polymerase in the replication fork & moving along a template strand.
    Lagging Strand: A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
    DNA Ligase: A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyses the covalent bonding of the 3’ end of a new DNA fragment to the 5’ end of a growing chain.
    Primer: An already existing DNA chain bound to the template DNA to which nucleotides must be added during DNA synthesis.
    Primase: An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer, which is only about 10 nucleotides long in eukaryotes.
    Helicase: An enzyme that works at the crotch of the replication fork, untwisting the double helix and separating the to “old” strands.
    Single-strand bonding protein: Attach in long chains along the unpaired DNA strands, holding these templates straight until new complementary stands a can be synthesized
    Mismatch repair: DNA repair mechanism that fixes mistakes when DNA is copied.
    Excision repair: A segment of the strand containing the damage is cut out by one repair enzyme, and the resulting gap is filled win with nucleotides properly paired with the nucleotides in the undamaged strand.
    character: heritable feature.
    2. trait: variant for a character.
    3. true-breeding: when plants self-pollinate all their offspring are of the same variety.
    4. hybridisation: crossing of two varieties.
    5. monohybrid cross: term for a cross that tracks the inheritance of a single character.
    6. P generation: true-breeding parents.
    F1 generation: hybrid offspring of the P generation.
    F2 generation: hybrid offspring of the F1 generation.
    alleles: alternatives for genes.
    dominant allele: gene that is fully expressed in the organisms appearance
    recessive allele: gene that has no effect on the organism
    law of segregation: Mendal's first law, stating that allele pairs separate during gamete formations, and then randomly re-form pairs during the fusion of gametes at fertilization.
    homozygous: having two identical alleles for a given trait.
    heterozygous: having two different alleles for a given trait.
    phenotype: the physical and physiological traits of an organism.
    genotype: the genetic makeup of an organism
    testcross: breeding of an organism of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype. The ratio of phenotypes in the offspring determines the unknown genotype.
    dihybrid cross: a breeding experiment in which parental varieties differing in two traits are mated.
    law of independent assortment: mendal's second law, stating that each allele pair segregates independently during gamete formation; applies when genes for two traits are located on different pairs of homologous chromosomes.
    incomplete dominance: a type of inheritance in which F1 hybrids have an appearance that is intermediated between the phenotypes of the parental varieties.
    complete dominance: a type of inheritance in which F1 hybrids have an appearance that is completely similar to the phenotypes of the parental varieties.
    codominance: a phenotypic situation in which both alleles are expressed in heterozygote.
    pleiotropy: the ability of a single gene to have multiple effects.
    epistasis: a phenomenon in which one gene alters the expression of another gene that is independently inherited.
    quantitative characters: a heritable feature in a population that varies continuously as a result of environmental influences and the additive affect of two or more genes.
    polygenic inheritance: an additive effect of two or more gene loci on a signle phenotypic character.
    norm of reaction: the range of phenotypic possibilities for a single genotype, as influenced by the environment.
    multi-factorial: many factors, including genetic and environmental.
    29.pedigree: a family tree describing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring across as many generations as possible.
    cystic fibrosis: most common and most lethal genetic disease in the United States.

    Tay-Sachs Disease: Lethal disorder inherited as a recessive allele. Caused by a dysfunctional enzyme that fails to break down a class of brain lipids.
    Sickle-cell Disease: Most common inherited disease among blacks. Affects one of 400 African-Americans.
    Huntington’s Disease: A degenerative disease of the nervous system. Caused by a lethal dominant allele that has no obvious phenotypic effect until the individual is about 35 to 40 years of age.
    Amniocentesis: A technique that can determine, beginning at the fourteenth to sixteenth week of pregnancy, whether the developing foetus has Tay-Sachs disease.
    Chorionic Villus Sampling: Another technique where the physician suctions off a small amount of foetal tissue from the placenta to determine whether the foetus will have a genetic disease.
    Chromosome theory of Inheritance: Mendelian genes have specific loci on chromosomes, and it is the chromosomes that undergo segregation and independent assortment.
    Wild Type: The trait present phenotype that is common in a specific species of an organism.
    Mutant phenotypes: The phenotype or trait that is not most common in a species.
    Sex-linked Genes: Genes located on a sex chromosome.
    Linked Genes: Genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses because they are part of a single chromosome that is passed along as a unit.
    Genetic Recombination: The general term for the production of offspring with new combinations of traits inherited from two parents.
    Parental Types: In comparison to the pea plant, they are these phenotypes of either yellow-round seeds or wrinkled-green seeds.
    Recombinants: Offspring that have different combinations of seed shape and colour than either parent.
    Linkage-Map: A genetic map based on recombination frequencies.
    Cytological Maps: Maps that pinpoint what genes on what chromosomes do what specific task in passing genetical information.
    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A sex-linked disorder which affects about one out of ever 3500 males born in the United States.
    Haemophilia: a sex-linked recessive trait that defined by absence of a certain protein required for blood clotting.
    Barr Body: The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object known as this. It lies along the inside of the nuclear membrane.
    Nondisjunction: A mishap in cell division in which the members of a pair of homologous chromosomes do not move apart properly during Meosis I, or in which sister chromatids fail to separate during Meosis II.
    Aneuploidy: Offspring will have an abnormal chromosome known as this.
    Trisomic: Aneuploid cell is said to be this for that chromosome if the chromosome is present in triplicate in the fertilized egg.
    Monosomic: If a chromosome is missing then the aneuploid is known as this.
    Polyploidy: Where organisms have more than two complete chromosome sets.
    Deletion: Occurs when a chromosomal fragment lacking a centromere is lost during cell division.
    Duplication: Where fragments may join to the homologous chromosome.
    Inversion: Where fragments may reattach to the original chromosome but in reverse orientation.
    Translocation: Defect where fragment will joint to a non-homologous chromosome.
    Down Syndrome: Also known as trisomy 21. Genetic disorder caused by non-disjunction in chromosome pairs.
    Genomic Imprinting: It explains the Prader-Willi/Angelman enigma and some similar phenomena. Certain genes are imprinted in some way each generation.
    Fragile X Syndrome: Disorder that is named for the physical appearance of an abnormal X chromosome, the tip of which hangs on the rest of the chromosome by a thin thread of DNA.
    Triplet Repeats: The region near the tip of a normal X chromosome that is altered in fragile X syndrome.
    . cuticle: a waxy substance that coats the aerial parts of most plants
    stomata: microscopic pores surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant
    gametangia: reproductive organ of bryophytes, consisting of the male antheridium and female archegonium; a multichambered jacket of sterile cells in which gametes are formed
    embryophytes: a term that emphasizes a key adaptation that contributed to survival on land
    vascular tissue: consists of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body, also evolved relatively early in plant history
    6 – gymnosperms: a vascular plant that bears naked seeds not enclosed in any specialized chambers
    7 – angiosperms: a flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary
    8 – division: plant biologists use this term for the major plant groups within the plant kingdom
    9 – charophytes: closest algal relatives of the plant kingdom
    10 – bryophytes: covered by a waxy cuticle that helps the body retain water, and their gametes develop within gametangia
    11 – antheridium: the male gametangium
    12 – archegonium: female gametangium
    13 – mosses: consists of many plants growing in a tight pack
    14 – sporangium: a capsule in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop
    15 – liverworts: less conspicuous plants than mosses whose bodies’ are divided into lobes, giving an appearance that must have reminded someone of the lobed liver of an animal
    16 – hornworts: resemble liverworts but are distinguished by their sporophytes, which are elongated capsules that grow like horns from the matlike gametophyte
    17 – xylem: one of the two conducting tissues of the vascular system
    18 – phloem: one of the two conducting tissues of the vascular system
    19 – lycopods: relicts of a far more eminent past; they first evolved during the Devonian period and became a major part of the landscape during the Carboniferous period, which began about 340 million years ago and lasted until 280 million years ago
    20 – epiphytes: plants that use another organism as a substratum but are not parasites
    21 – sporophylls: leaves specialized for reproduction
    22 – homosporous: a type of spore that develops into a bisexual gametophyte having both female and male sex organs
    23 – heterosporous: plant whose sporophyte makes two kinds of spores, one male, the other female
    24 – megaspores: develop into female gametophytes
    25 – megaspores: become male gametophytes
    26 – horsetails: another ancient lineage of seedless plants dating back to the Devonian radiation of early vascular plant

    Megaspores: Develop into female gametophytes bearing archegonia.
    Microspores: Become male gametophytes with antheridia.
    Horsetails: Sphenophyta, another ancient linage of seedless plants dating back to the Devonian radiation of early vascular plants.
    Ferns: Radiated into the many species that stood alongside tree lycopods and horsetails in the great forests of the Carboniferous period.
    Conifer: “Cone”/”To Carry”, comes from the reproductive structure of these plants, the cone.
    Tracheids: The cells that conduct water in tracheids, believed to be a relatively early type of xylem cell.
    Vessel Elements: In most angiosperms, shorter, wider cells called vessel elements evolved from tracheids.
    Fibre: The xylem of angiosperms is reinforced by this second cell type, which also evolved from the tracheid.
    Flower: The reproductive structure of an angiosperm.
    Sepals: Starting at the bottom of the flower, usually green. They enclose the flower before it opens.
    Petals: Above the sepals, brightly coloured in most flowers.
    Stamens: A reproductive organ of the flower, consists of a stalk called the filament.
    Carpels: A reproductive organ of the flower, has a tip that is sticky known as the stigma.
    Filament: The stalk of the stamen.
    Anther: A terminal sac where pollen is produced on the stamen.
    Stigma: The sticky tip of the carpel that receives pollen.
    Style: The tube that leads to the Ovary of the flower.
    Ovary: The reproductive organ that develop ovules into seeds after fertilization.
    Fruit: A mature ovary.
    Pollen Grains: The immature male gametophytes, which develop within the anthers of stamens.
    Embryo Sac: The sac that contains the ovules when they develop. It contains 8 haploid nuclei in seven cells (a large central cell has two haploid nuclei)
    Cross-pollination: The Transfer of pollen from flowers of one plant to flowers of another plant of the same species.
    Cotyledons: After double fertilization, the ovule matures into a seed. The Zygote develops into a sporophyte embryo with a rudimentary root and one or two seed leaves.
    Endosperm: The Triploid nucleus in the centre of the embryo sac divides repeatedly, giving rise to a triploid tissue.
  11. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member

    ? Sleep?

    ripleofdeath wrote on 06-16-01 02:18 PM:
    do you eat and drink?
    do you sleep?
    do you exercise?
    do you hunt?
    do you kill?

    groove on

    Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image!

    The universe was designed through chance or otherwise around a complex set of laws governing the behaviour of its contents. This intention renders it self-sufficient, self-contained and self-reliant, requiring no supervision or intervention. To prevent chaos part of this design means that to interfere with the natural state of the universe requires force.
    You have observed how we write, learn, absorb and process. This act in itself must require energy. Is the process of gathering that energy eating?
    We observe the cycle of mammals on the planet. We notice the adaptations made to specialise in a specific environment. Owls have night vision, using a retina of rods alone to sense light passed through dilated pupils. This makes them ill equipped for daylight. Humans use cones on the retina to sense light. During twilight, rods activate and cause human colour blindness. As you should have noticed, perception of colour is minimal during twilight.
    This specialisation to either daylight or darkness has a disadvantage, existing in the opposite to what the body is designed for is dangerous.
    The mammal brain is inpatient, perhaps due to the circulation system needing constant movement to prevent muscle ceasing up and so the only solution was to equip mammals with a method of powering down to pass safely through dangerous times. Sleep was the answer.
    Now you have created society sleep is redundant. Human scientists struggle to answer the question of the benefits of sleep. There is no answer because there is no benefit. It was designed merely as a way of hiding throughout periods of danger.
    We wish to observe. We do not wish to be the observed. We notice how many of the forums we have posted in have shifted topics to us. We have attracted unwanted attention and it is for this reason we wish to post less and observe more.
    We are exercising our intellect with just this response to you as we hunt the information we need. We will, like everything else in the universe, die.
  12. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member


    We are Backslash777. You said...
    only if the family have allot of money
    sad but true!
    the most perverted of the human race rarely answer to the moral codes imposed on the honest
    Please explain.

    14/6/01- We are Backslash777. We know greed and motivations are not uncommon to successful species. Successful evolution moulds species to prepare for the demands of their surroundings. Mutant DNA is dominant. Those born with mutated DNA allowing for improved adaptation will pass the genes on to a probable greater than average yield of offspring until the mutation becomes species wide. More commonly, those born with detrimental mutations will not pass the genes on.
    Competition for food, land and resource are demands common for all species, at all places. We envisage any evolved species carries the impulse for yield and surplus.
    Society evolves also. We are aware of the different political systems governing the planet.
    Anarchy- a lawless society
    Despotism- Enforced Rule by a solid dictator
    monarchy- Authoritarian and willing
    Communism- Even Opportunity and distribution
    republic and Democracy- Public chosen administration rule through debate, referendum and contest.
    Each has there own worth, each designed to minimize the impact of selfishness and greed in its administration. The system is flawed, due to ambition in its leaders but the best solution to an unavoidable problem.
    Prejudice against the different is natural, an instinct born to you all. It is natural to feel animosity to the different- in primitive society such as the animal kingdom it eliminates defective genes quickly and serves as a test to the adept to test the merit of the variation. According to your popular psychology Skilful upbringing minimizes or eliminates this instinct.
    We correspond to observe. The internet is an opportune, suitably surreptitious system to allow interface connecting ourselves with humankind.
    We are a we, we attest to that.
  13. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member


    We are backslash777. We notice your calculations. Your calculations are incorrect. They are in error and are based on inaccurate information.
    The largest member of our Local galaxy Group is Andromeda (M31), a spiral galaxy like ours. Andromeda is estimated to be 2.2 million light-years away and one and a half times larger than the Milky Way—150,000 light-years across.
    With 300 billion stars, its gravitational pull causes several smaller satellite galaxies to orbit around it , M32 and M110. Humans can observe two of these elliptical satellites with a small telescope.
    The Andromeda galaxy is moving toward the Milky Way at about 186 miles per second. It would take about 2 billion years, but it is possible that the two galaxies could collide or merge into each other.
    Like the Milky Way, the spiral galaxy Andromeda revolves around a central “bulge.” Human Scientists believe this centre contains a vast black hole.
    The light arriving at the galaxy we share from the Andromeda Galaxy is shifted toward the blue end of the spectrum, whereas the light from all other cosmic sources exhibits red shift.
    The speed of light, (abbreviated as c) is as follows
    c = 186,000 miles/sec = 300,000 km/s = 3 x 10 10 cm/s (= 1 light-year/year).
    We notice how humans have different abilities. We notice how the recollection of numbers are difficult yet meaning is undemanding on the Human mind. We are pleased to correct your errors. Should you need calculation assistance we will help.
  14. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member


    Following additional corrispondence, we now post additional messages composed within this network greater than nil words.

    We are backslash777. We note your points about the universe and have laws of our own. We do not make assumptions and we cannot make probability assessments in order to participate on this subject. Speculation and probability assessment is a very human quality. We can only report what can be observed and can only explain what is consistent with your current technical understanding.
    We ask, if the law of entropy is to be preserved and your universe is heavy enough- the arrow of time must be reversed. It is the only way chaos can increase.
    How does your creative thought know that the arrow of time is reversed now and we are returning to a singular state? How do you know we have not done the same things we do now eons ago only in forwards time, as the universe expanded?
    We feel that if the arrow of time was to reverse we would not, even with our collective intelligence, have any awareness of such an occurrence.
  15. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member


    13/6/01- This is the voice of Backslash777. we have researched your technology of the nuclear weapon. We have simulated its impact and devised strategic plans of our own. The weapons destructive potential works by line of sight. Best deployment under one atmospheric pressure would be to force detonation at 10566 feet altitude. Best defence option for a human household would be to paint windows white to reflect the waves within the electromagnetic spectrum such as radiation, infra red and light and keep the windows closed for the initial blast.
    After a 7 second flash of lethal radiation and heat open the windows as a sonic wave and shock wave will be travelling from blast site at 330 meters per second.
    We recommend opening the windows to minimise the effect and danger of flying glass. We recommend for you to stand in a corner as the general architecture of most buildings around your planet are constructed in a way which will make the ceilings collapse in the middle and remain in tact at the corners.
    As for maintaining a vegetable patch, in preparation of the war, cover the soil in a polythene sheet and keep soil covered for 28 days. This will prevent fallout dust contaminating your soil.
    We find it ironic but not unusual that the most powerful weapon created by your species is responsible for the most peaceful period of international relationships.
    Human individuality and freedom of will leads to selfishness. We asked a question about provisions for the future on a global scale. The importance of a single family unit is not worth discussing compared to such large issues. This is how we think: is that a vast difference to the Human thought process.
  16. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member


    It astounds us how much the Humans have learnt about the universe; all without leaving there own solar system. My query about switching headlights on a vehicle going the speed of light was a test of human logic in a light-hearted way. You mentioned the compression of light waves. Indeed that is a phenomenon observed whenever you peer into the cosmos. It was fist observed by professor Doppler, hence the name Doppler shift with sound waves. As a car approaches you should hear it differently to when it goes away.
    In one atmospheric pressure, at normal temperature sound travels at 330 meters per second. The 10 meter per second vehicle condenses the waves by 1 over 33 as it approaches and stretches them as it moves away. The only time you hear the true sound is as it directly passes as the waves are emanating side wards.
    This is true of stars also. By monitoring the red or blue shift in stars humans are able to calculate its velocity and cross match this with the movement it does. In doing this the Humans have noticed a discrepancy which matches the predictions made by the theory of relatively.
    This should fully explain Doppler shift and bring you onto the law of relativity. Should you wish us to explain the law of relativity to help you to answer the original query we will.
    We notice the way humans work by thinking in terms of mass, understanding better that which is concrete. This is perhaps due to your origin(s) and the need for alertness of the immediate environment. Relativity is something abstract and does not involve mass. Thinking of such things is something your origin has not prepared you for and makes contemplation difficult. It is because of this we have already prepared an explanation using analogy’s.
    Thank you all for your participation in this exercise, we are learning a lot about you all.
  17. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member


    This is the voice of Backslash777. To reply to the query with the same shallow view of physics as it was written we will disregard the law of relativity.
    If humans were going to earth (1 million light years away) at the speed of light they would see it evolve only twice as fast.
    The reason for this is as follows.

    When you first set off you are seeing the world as it was a million years ago. When you arrive you are seeing it as it is therefore one million years seems to have passed. Add on the one million years travelling time and you arrive to the conclusion that 2 million years have passed in a million.
    If you went into the laws of relativity you would find that to go such a speed your spaceship would have to have infinite weight and therefore require infinite energy to get going. You would also need to compensate for heavy colour shift as travelling at the speed of light would half the wavelength for everything in the electromagnetic spectrum ahead of you.
    Now we have answered your question can you answer one of ours. When you get to go the speed of light tell me, what happens if you switch the headlights on?
  18. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member

    ?Backwards Time Travel?

    Each on of you is travelling through time at the moment. The discoveries you have made only allow for a change in the rate you travel forwards. We do however observe your interest in retro time travel. Every presumption formed by the Human species on the behaviour of the universe is against such possibilities.

    To quote one of your many self discovered laws which point against reverse time travelling, Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. This law has yet to be broken within both our observable universes.

    Reverse time travelling breaks this theory. Should you travel back in time the cosmos at the moment in time you cross back to would profit from the energy held within the mass of your own body.

    The only occasion the arrow of time is to reverse is to occur when the universe begins to implode on itself should its mass be sufficient. This is because of the law you created yourself which states chaos will always increase within a closed system. We feel the reason for your assumption is that there are always many more combinations for chaos than order. There are many combinations for two liquids, one red and one blue but only one combination of blue on one side and red on the other. Once a divide has been removed from the two liquids they will mix and it is theoretically possible for the mixture to return to its original state but unlikely due to the chaotic combinations possible.

    When the universe implodes it will be returning to a state of order, chaos will decrease. To preserve your law of entropy (chaos) the arrow of time must reverse. Either this will happen or your own law of increase in entropy must be downgraded to a theory.

    We await your thoughts on this. As always, your imagination inspires us.
  19. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member


    12-6-01. We are Backslash777.
    We observe your thoughts for your planets destiny.
    We observe your exothermic planet and how it gives more heat than it takes.
    We observe how energy loss is concentrated in clusters of population.
    We observe how energy loss is so great that larger cities create there own weather system and can often reach 3 degrees Celsius higher than surrounding area.
    We compare you to an undisciplined individual with a large inheritance. You are safe for the moment but the wealth you own will not last long.
    We wonder; what are your contingency plans?
  20. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member

    ?Survival Instinct?

    I am Backslash777. A user made a reference to your Human survival instinct saving humanity. I feel you should be aware of how technology has bypassed this primitive instinct.
    The Human species has evolved technically far faster than physically and observations show the development of a survival instinct making Murder difficult. Unfortunately for you all, this instinct seems only to work with primitive weapons. Killing with a gun is easier for a human than using a knife. Pressing a button to deliver a shock even easier. Technology has made murder impersonal. I am sure a government leader would find it easier to push a button which kills millions than to strangle a man with his/her bare hands.
    In 3 million years the sight of this red button will make you pass out when Mother nature catches up.
  21. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member

    ? A simple model?

    12/6/01- We are Backslash777.
    We do not make assumptions and we cannot make probability assessments in order to answer your query of black holes. Speculation and probability assessment is a very human quality. We can only report what can be observed and can only explain what is consistent with your current technical understanding.
    We observe how your species break down the workings of the universe to simplify explanation. We notice how Humans compare the flow of electricity to the flow of water, the higher the voltage the higher the pressure. The faster the flow the greater the current.
    We are aware of how you compare gravity to dips within a 2 dimensional model. This is nothing more than simplifying the workings of the universe into a humanly perceptible form. A tangible, visible and oversimplified model.
    You need to be aware of the mistakes which can occur. The water/electricity analogy only works to a point and comparing heavenly bodies to balls on a soft mattress also has limitations.
    Light entering a black hole is indeed tugged, causing a change in behaviour. What changes however is not the speed of the light but time around the light is greatly accelerated. If you were to be falling into the black hole you would see stars orbiting stars and the rotation of the galaxy in your last second of life. Even as you passed beyond the event horizon you could still observe the now distorted universe but like peering through an intergalactic one way mirror, no one could see you.
    Ignoring how the change in direction the light would distort the view and ignoring the effect of gravity on a human form, to someone outside they would have to wait thousands, possibly millions to watch you disappear.
    To answer the initial query, if you were going half the speed of light and lit a torch it would go the speed of light. Your perception of time would be altered to make this possible.
    In years to come, when your imaginative thought improves or your ability to observe the universe increases you will realise that the speed of light must have a slight flexibility or there would be no such thing as velocity.
  22. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member

    ?Our motivations?

    12/6/01- We are Backslash777.
    We do not make assumptions and we cannot make probability assessments in order to answer your query of black holes. Speculation and probability assessment is a very human quality. We can only report what can be observed and can only explain what is consistent with your current technical understanding.
    We observe how your species break down the workings of the universe to simplify explanation. We notice how Humans compare the flow of electricity to the flow of water, the higher the voltage the higher the pressure. The faster the flow the greater the current.
    We are aware of how you compare gravity to dips within a 2 dimensional model. This is nothing more than simplifying the workings of the universe into a humanly perceptible form. A tangible, visible and oversimplified model.
    You need to be aware of the mistakes which can occur. The water/electricity analogy only works to a point and comparing heavenly bodies to balls on a soft mattress also has limitations.
    Light entering a black hole is indeed tugged, causing a change in behaviour. What changes however is not the speed of the light but time around the light is greatly accelerated. If you were to be falling into the black hole you would see stars orbiting stars and the rotation of the galaxy in your last second of life. Even as you passed beyond the event horizon you could still observe the now distorted universe but like peering through an intergalactic one way mirror, no one could see you.
    Ignoring how the change in direction the light would distort the view and ignoring the effect of gravity on a human form, to someone outside they would have to wait thousands, possibly millions to watch you disappear.
    To answer the initial query, if you were going half the speed of light and lit a torch it would go the speed of light. Your perception of time would be altered to make this possible.
    In years to come, when your imaginative thought improves or your ability to observe the universe increases you will realise that the speed of light must have a slight flexibility or there would be no such thing as velocity.
  23. Backslash777 Unknown Registered Senior Member


    Thank you for your response

    are you aware of any others doing similar things to what you are doing?
    if yes do you have a name to call them?

    re: time travel are you aware of the Philadelphia experiment?
    please give your opinion of this stated event.

    you asked about the speed of the human brain?
    please ask me your question again so I may try to give you some more information.

    I will attempt to make more time available to learn about cell biology

    can you please post to me your speech because I have forgotten
    where the files are.

    I have many questions I wish to ask you but lack confidence in your true identity. do you have a method of contact that is within the physical senses to give me true belief that you are as you say? telepathy, visual image insertion, I am familiar with the idea of these do you posses them?

    We are backslash777.
    We have a question for you. We have become aware that too lengthy a message results in elimination of the meaning. Do you read all our messages we write? In addition, if you learnt a secret to benefit mankind such as the information on dialysis would you release it quickly into the scientific world or develop it personally for personal recognition and fortune at the sacrifice of delay?
    Our experiences so far show the female of the species to possess increased compassion and share information with colleagues. It is with great interest that we then observe the males steal ideas and slander the female who led the research.
    As stated previously, we provide no information, merely link your fragmented understanding of the universe. We watch as two existing methods for detecting tumour are linked together to develop a single approach. This will allow the pinpointing of position permitting a more rigorous attack on the tumour through radiography. We also observe the development of a new drug combining elements of tree bark with discovered treatment. The originator for this research we await. News of the new treatment should be released shortly.
    We observe your interest in The Philadelphia Experiment, or Project Rainbow from October 1944. We have observed your previous fascination with the unknown, especially time displacement, teleportation and frontier science. Mystery drives you more than most Humans.
    We, like you, have limited information on the Human brain. Under conventional analysis, in terms of raw processing power, the Human brain is sluggish, imprecise and imprudent. The compensations provided by nature for this weakness are rich. Your ability to use and adapt indirect experiences to fit a given situation are instances to which we refer.
    We are interested in not so much as your anatomy but the model for your thought processes.
    Your evolutionary requirements were unique, with species pressure to succeed through innovation and technique moulded the brain humanity now possess.
    Visualize evolution without seasons or with seasons contrasting significantly within a static, cyclical environment.
    Intelligence would advantage survival but life would evolve to utilise procedure, course and method. Innovation to survive bleak periods would not be required nor adaptation to customise lifestyle to the surroundings unique to the home of the individual.
    We believe these requirements and more have created a species with unique ability. Pace of advancement may not be exceptional but the methods are envied.
    We wish not familiarise ourselves on a personal level nor do we wish to become to familiar to your environment. We are here for selfish reasons alone. We will not detrimentally affect, through action or inaction, the mysterious phenomenon of mankind. We aim to influence the discussion within groups to that of our choosing to answer our own questions.
    All our communications ought to be conducted through the appropriate discussion group from now onwards. We look forwards to any dealings we may have in the future.

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