PhysBang, Now that you bring up 'bad math' we can discuss how, in calculus, an undefined integral can be converted into an improper integral if you have + and - infinite limits on a lower sub function that cycles (but not if it only cycles once on a universal scale) from - infinity to + infinity. The best 'bad math' kludge is to say that -13.7 Billion balances with infinity so that obviously the universe must be expanding and it must abound with 'dark matter' but it's somewhere were we can't see it. Rpenner and PhysBang, the middle of the bridge between reality and the quantum world is the point where the photons are captured. The lensing involved requires further manipulation of the data prior to analysis so this must also be considered. The physics community would do itself a great service if it developed agreed protocols for crossing this bridge that take into consideration the entire path into the 'quantum world' and the return trip back to 'reality'.