02-26-08, 06:56 PM #1
Observing the Edge of the Unseen. Part II of ''Electromagnetic Vibrations of Variou
Observing the Edge of the Unseen. Part II of
''Electromagnetic Vibrations of Various Wavelengths and Ionizing Potential''
Posted by, K.Flint.
The "Zero Point Energy Field" [ZPEF] has had many who have come independently to belive in it. Some have been able to show a hint of it's edges and present the POSSIBILITY that it may be there. I have outlined the history of this thought process in my post "electromagnetic vibrations of various wavelengths and ionizing potential"
What we may be able to see of the ZPEF may be just the shadowy edges of what it really is.
Under the photon theory of light, a photon is a discrete bundle (or quantum) of electromagnetic (or light) energy. Photons are always in motion and, in a vacuum, have a constant speed of light to all observers.
Basic Properties of Photons.
According to the photon theory of light, photons move at a constant velocity, c = 2.9979 x 108 m/s (i.e. "the speed of light"), in free space
Have zero mass and rest energy.
Carry energy and momentum, which are also related to the frequency nu and wavelength lamdba of the electromagnetic wave by E = h nu and p = h / lambda.
Can be destroyed/created when radiation is absorbed/emitted.
Can have particle-like interactions (i.e. collisions) with electrons and other particles, such as in the Compton effect. See Compton Scattering.
The interaction between electrons and high energy photons results in the electron being given part of the energy (making it recoil), and a photon containing the remaining energy being emitted in a different direction from the original, so that the overall momentum of the system is conserved.
The part that is important when concerning the ZPEF is the recoil effect of Compton's Scattering and the particle-wave duality in photons. Photons though treated as particles, can be calculated to have frequency, wavelength, amplitude, and other properties inherent in wave mechanics. This is known as the photoelectric effect.
This phenomenon has been verified not only for elementary particles, but also for compound particles like atoms and even molecules.
This brings me to:
Matter and Antimatter - The Unbalanced Equation.
The negatively charged Electron has its Antielectron called a Positron, which has positive electric charge; the Proton has an Antiproton, and so on.
According to particle physics, matter and antimatter should be present in the universe in equal amounts. However this seems not to be the case since there is much more matter than antimatter.
Antiprotons have been detected in cosmic rays for over 25 years, first by balloon-borne experiments and more recently by satellite-based detectors. The standard picture for their presence in cosmic rays is that they are produced in collisions of cosmic ray protons with nuclei in the interstellar medium, via the reaction:
p A p p A
The secondary antiprotons () then propagate through the galaxy, confined by the galactic magnetic fields. Their energy spectrum is modified by collisions with other atoms in the interstellar medium
When particles collide with their anti-particles, they both disintegrate into electromagnetic radiation, their energy carried away in neutral particles called photons.
This interaction of colliding particles causes an explosion of Photons that radiates out in the form of electromagnetic waves. In terms of the ZPEF I have termed this a ''Photon Storm''.
This ''Photon Storm'' then brings us to Electromagnetic radiation.
EM radiation carries energy and momentum, which may be imparted when it interacts with matter.
Electric and magnetic fields obey the properties of superposition, so fields due to particular particles or time-varying electric or magnetic fields contribute to the fields due to other causes.
These properties cause various phenomena including refraction and diffraction. For instance, a travelling EM wave incident on an atomic structure induces oscillation in the atoms, thereby causing them to emit their own EM waves. These emissions then alter the impinging wave through interference.
Any electric charge which accelerates, or any changing magnetic field, produces electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic information about the charge travels at the speed of light. accurate treatment thus incorporates a concept known as retarded time (as opposed to advanced time, which is unphysical in light of causality), which adds to the expressions for the electrodynamic electric field and magnetic field.
These extra terms are responsible for electromagnetic radiation. When any wire (or other conducting object such as an antenna) conducts alternating current, electromagnetic radiation is propagated at the same frequency as the electric current.
Depending on the circumstances, it may behave as a wave or as particles. As a wave, it is characterized by a velocity (the speed of light), wavelength, and frequency. When considered as particles, they are known as photons, and each has an energy related to the frequency of the wave given by Planck's relation E = hν, where E is the energy of the photon, h = 6.626 × 10-34 J·s is Planck's constant, and ν is the frequency of the wave.
One rule is always obeyed regardless of the circumstances: EM radiation in a vacuum always travels at the speed of light, relative to the observer, regardless of the observer's velocity. (This observation led to Albert Einstein's development of the theory of special relativity.)
In a medium (other than vacuum), velocity of propagation or refractive index are considered, depending on frequency and application. Both of these are ratios of the speed in a medium to speed in a vacuum.
The behavior of EM radiation depends on its wavelength. Higher frequencies have shorter wavelengths, and lower frequencies have longer wavelengths. When EM radiation interacts with single atoms and molecules, its behavior depends on the amount of energy per quantum it carries. Electromagnetic radiation can be divided into octaves — as sound waves are — winding up with eighty-one octaves.
Electric potential energy
The electric energy is the potential energy associated with the conservative Coulomb forces between charged particles contained within a system, where the reference potential energy is usually chosen to be zero for particles at infinite separation. It can be defined as the amount of work one must apply to (massless) charged particles to bring them from infinite separation to some finite proximity configuration.
The type of wave created by EM radiation depends on its wavelength one such wavelength is Energy. Electric potential energy to be specific.
Electromagnetic wave propagation may occur in a vacuum as well as in a material medium.
The classical model of electricity and magnetism makes use of the ideas of electric and magnetic fields. Maxwell’s equations describe how these fields behave, and the Lorentz force equation, which describes how the fields push and pull charged particles and magnets.
A prediction of Maxwell’s equations is that there are waves in the electromagnetic field which travel at the speed of light. These waves were identified with light by the experiments of Hertz and others. We therefore have two very different ideas for how light works -- as waves in the electric and magnetic fields, and as motion of particles -- photons. This pair of explanations is called "wave-particle duality" and is a recurring theme of quantum mechanics.
In the more general case any change of moment of a particle is accompanied by the emission of a photon,We also know that when an electron changes position from one orbit to the next it also emits a photon that equates to the energy change
Energy related to the frequency of the wave given by Planck's relation E = hν, where E is the energy of the photon, h = 6.626 × 10-34 J·s is Planck's constant, and ν is the frequency of the wave.
Static electric and magnetic fields also exhibit wave-particle duality. The collision of a charged particle with another (repulsive or attractive) can be modeled as the exchange of photons and you get the same answer as if you had calculated everything with just the classical fields (in the limit that the classical calculation applies -- slow incoming particles). The quantum calculation involving the exchange of photons is more accurate in describing actual collisions at higher energies.
The photoelectric effect. Incoming photons on the left strike a metal plate (bottom), and eject electrons, depicted as flying off to the right.
In 1905, Albert Einstein provided an explanation of the photoelectric effect, a hitherto troubling experiment that the wave theory of light seemed incapable of explaining. He did so by postulating the existence of photons, quanta of light energy with particulate qualities.
In the photoelectric effect, it was observed that shining a light on certain metals would lead to an electric current in a circuit. Presumably, the light was knocking electrons out of the metal, causing current to flow.
However, it was also observed that while a dim blue light was enough to cause a current, even the strongest, brightest red light caused no current at all. According to wave theory, the strength or amplitude of a light wave was in proportion to its brightness: a bright light should have been easily strong enough to create a large current. Yet, oddly, this was not so.
Einstein explained this conundrum by postulating that the electrons can receive energy from electromagnetic field only in discrete portions (quanta that were called photons): an amount of energy E that was related to the frequency, f of the light by E = hf
where h is Planck's constant (6.626 × 10-34 J seconds). Only photons of a high-enough frequency, (above a certain threshold value) could knock an electron free.
For example, photons of blue light had sufficient energy to free an electron from the metal, but photons of red light did not. More intense light above the threshold frequency could release more electrons, but no amount of light below the threshold frequency could release an electron.
Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for his theory of the photoelectric effect.
We have antimater creating electromagnetic radiation causing ''Photon Storms'' or electromagnetic waves traveling through out space at the speed of light that are propagating themselves by inducing oscillation in atoms, thereby causing them to emit their own EM waves. Thus we have a never ending cycle of EM waves.
Can these waves, specifically the cause of those waves, be the force that is accelerating galaxies away from each other? Either way we now know that the vacuum of space is occupied by a electromagnetic/electrostatic field.
These particles in the form of electromagnetic waves have potential energy at specific wavelengths. Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect shows that energy can be gathered from this field. So adding everything together one could say that the vacuum of space IS indeed a ZPEF and it is NOT magic but accepted physics.
02-26-08, 07:40 PM #2
That's the idea that space has a tension, like a string has a tension - so space is like a 3-d string, stretching itself out, or somesuch.
But there is the not-insignificant problem of answering the obvious question: what's it stretched between? Galaxies recede but also cluster together.
The expansion is "because of" the initial inflation from Planck-size to cosmic size (relatively speaking).
02-27-08, 09:16 AM #3
02-27-08, 09:28 AM #4
It's a good read. Enjoyable.
02-27-08, 12:01 PM #5Can these waves, specifically the cause of those waves, be the force that is accelerating galaxies away from each other?
Either way we now know that the vacuum of space is occupied by a electromagnetic/electrostatic field.
Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect shows that energy can be gathered from this field.
02-27-08, 02:37 PM #6
I agree with Ben. Why not the stars within galaxies, and not just the galaxies? The BB model works well as is.
Not to derail a thread, but the Compton scattering discourse in the original post brings to mind that discrete photons of any energy can be scattered off of electrons that are moving at any energy. This can be applied to aim a laser beam of, say, visible light frequency photons at a high-E electron beam of, say, 30 MeV electrons. The compton photons that are kicked back would be at about 30 KeV photons [compared to a few eV for visible light], in the same energy range of many X-ray photons.
By doing this, one would have a source of discrete photon energy [determined by the laser energy, and the e-beam energy], that could be 'tuned' to any desired photon energy simply by 'tuning' the e-beam to a higher or lower energy. This might make for an excellent medical tool to replace current X-ray technology, which emits "x-rays" that are composed of both brehmstralung radiation and discrete K-shell, etc., photons, making for a broad spread of photon energies, even with filtration to eliminate lower-energy photons.
02-27-08, 03:21 PM #7
Well, surely not. Why would they act only over long distances, and not over intermediate distances (stars)?
you could ask the same question about why there is more matter then antimatter in our local system right?
Also by a gravitational field?
in a 'local' area where there is a solar sytem [or large mass of any kind] gravity is stronger then in deep space where it is weaker.
Sakharov's 1968 hypothesis that gravitation is not a primary field, but is produced as a result of interactions of other fields. Together with Whittaker's structured potential, this implies that the gravitational aspects of the nucleus can also be electromagnetically engineered.
As a result of Sakharov's hypothesis, explosive activity in stochastic electrodynamics (SED) has shown that many fundamental parts of physics are "already unified" in terms of electromagnetics and gravitation.
Evidence continues to accumulate that the gravitational field may not be a primary field of nature, but a secondary or residual effect associated with other non-gravitational fields. Actually, general relativity has always focused on energy as the thing which really has gravitation.
Trapped energy, such as mass, is particularly important. But since mass is essentially trapped EM energy, relativity has essentially assumed Sakharov's hypothesis anyway, without stating it so explicitly.
see Physical Review Online Archive
I don't see how off the top of my head. In the photo-electric effect there is basically a bunch of free electrons floating around in a metal, and you can knock them out with photons.
read this http://spiff.rit.edu/classes/phys314...oe/photoe.html
I don't think you can do the same thing with the zero point field. And even if you could, I don't see how you can think of this as ``extracting energy'' from the zero point field. For example, you can't extract energy using the photoelectric effect, because you have to power the light source, and the efficiency is less than 1 I'm pretty sure.
The point is it can be done gathering or learning to gather greater amounts of energy would just be the next step. Taking energy from the vacuum could be done via a phantom circuit and a Tesla Antenna as long as the frequency was correct.
Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission is the process that takes place in any system where electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load, without interconnecting wires.
A Tesla Coil used as an electrical power receiver is referred to as a Tesla Antenna. The Tesla antenna as a receiver acts as a step-down transformer with high current output. The parameters of a Tesla Coil transmitter are identically applicable to it being a receiver (e.g., an antenna circuit), due to reciprocity. Impedance, generally though, is not applied in an obvious way; for electrical impedance, the impedance at the load (e.g., where the power is consumed) is most critical and, for a Tesla Coil receiver, this is at the point of utilization (such as at an induction motor) rather than at the receiving node. Complex impedance of an antenna is related to the electrical length of the antenna at the wavelength in use. Commonly, impedance is adjusted at the load with a tuner or a matching networks composed of inductors and capacitors.
William C. Brown demonstrated in 1964 on the CBS Walter Cronkite news a microwave-powered model helicopter that received all the power needed for flight from a microwave beam. Between 1969 and 1975 Bill Brown was technical director of a JPL Raytheon program that beamed 30 kW over a distance of 1 mile at 84% efficiency.
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