The mas- sacres of Rowno and Dubno, of which the German engineer Graebe spoke, were examples of one method; the systematic extermination of Jews in concentration camps, was another. Part of the "final Solution" was the gathering of Jews from all German-occupied. Europe in concentration camps. Their physical condition was the test of life or death. All who were. fit to work were used as slave laborers in the concentration camps; all who were not fit to work were destroyed in gas chambers and their bodies burnt. Certain concentration camps such as Treblinka and Auschwitz were set aside for this main purpose. With regard to Auschwitz, the Tribunal heard the evidence of Hoss, the commandant of the camp from 1May 1940. to 1 December 1943. He estimated that in the camp of Auschwitz
alone in that time 2,500,000 persons were exterminated, and that. a further 500,000 died from disease and starvation. Hoss described the screening for extermination by stating in evidence:
"We had two SS doctors on duty at Auschwitz to examine the incoming transports of prisoners. The prisoners would be marched by one of the doctors who would make spot decisions as they walked by. Those who were fit for work were sent into the camp. Others were sent immediately to the exterinination plants. Children of tender years were invariably exterminated since by reason of their youth they were unable to work. Still another improvement we made over Treblinka was that at Treblinka the victims almost always knew that they were to be exterminated and at ~uschwitz we endeavored to fool the victims into thinking that they were to go through a delousing process. Of course, frequently they realized our true intentions and we sometimes had riots and difficulties due to that fact. Very frequently women would hide their children under their clothes, but of course
' when we found them- we would 'send the children in t~ be
He described the actual killing by stating:
"It took from three to fifteen minutes to kill the people in the death chamber, depending upon climatic conditions. We knew when the people were dead because their screaming stopped. We usually waited about one half-hour before we opened the doors and removed the bodies. After the bodies were removed our special commandos took off the rings and extracted the gold from the teeth of the corpses."
Beating, starvation, torture, and killing were The inmates were subjected to cruel experiments at Dachau in August 1942, victims were immersed in cold water until fheir body temperature was reduced to 28 O Centigrade, when they died immediately. Other experiments included high altitude experiments in pressure cham- bers, experiments to determine how long human beings could sur- vive in freezing. water, experiments with poison bullets, experiments with contagious diseases, and experiments dealing with sterilization of men and women by X-rays and other methods.
Evidence was given of the treatment of the inmates before and after their extermination. There was testimony that the hair of . women victims was cut off before they were killed, and shipped to Germany, there to be used in the manufacture of mattresses. The clothes, money, and 'valuables of the inmates were also salvaged and sent to the appropriate agencies for disposition. After the exter- mination the gold teeth and fillings were taken from the heads of the corpses and sent to the Reichsbank.
After cremation the ashes were used for fertilizer, and in some instances attempts were made to utilize the fat from the bodies of the victims in the commercial manufacture of soap. Special groups traveled through Europe to find Jews and subject them to the "final solution". German missions were sent to such satellite coun- tries as Hungary and Bulgaria, to arrange for the shipment of Jews to extermination camps and it is known that by.the end of 1944, 400,000 Jews from Hungary had been murdered at Auschwitz. Evidence has also been given of the evacuation of 110,000Jews from , part of Rumania for "liquidation". Adolf Eichmann, who had been ' put in charge of this program by Hitler, has estimated that the policy pursued resulted in the killing of 6 million Jews, of which 4 million were killed in the extermination institutions.