Unified Energy Physics
The goal of physics is to unify all fundamental matter to some distant primordial force called quantum gravity. Today, scientists are attempting to unify the energies predicted by the standard model in high energy collisions in particle accelerators. One outcome of this is that it should predict the existence of new particles yet to be found. One very controversial particle is the Higgs Boson, still unnacounted for.
HIGGS BOSON EXPLORATION
The Higgs Boson is a hypothetical particle thought to give matter the actual substance of mass. It is a massive Scalar Elementary Particle, and was predicted by Peter Higgs in 1964. It is the only particle that has caused major controversy in the Standard Model, as of YET, it has not been found. But it turns out that the LEP Collider might have found evidence for it, which is still inconclusive. It explains why bosons like the energy particle of electromagnetism, the photon, should be massless, and why weak bosons, the W and Z bosons are critical to the electromagnetic force.
The Higgs Mechanism is a physical field, accompanied by its own Higgs Boson. Even the field itself provides the Higgs with mass! In empty space, it turns out that the Higgs forms a non-zero value, which is said to permeate all locations in the universe simultaneously. This is so that the field can reach every particle, despite the distance. The non-zero value, which is found to be something like 246GeV, predicted by the Vacuum Expectation Value or (VEV), is what provides all matter with mass. The Higgs is predicted to then have a mass about 1TeV, and an upper limit of 5TeV. It is thought to come from the shell decays of W and Z massless electroweak Bosons.
EXPECTANCY VALUES IN SPACETIME
The Vacuum Expectation Value, which has also been referred to as the Condensate Vacuum, is the expected operator value of the Vacuum, given by <0>. The Casmir Effect, which is an electromagnetic fluctuation between two plates in the vacuum, is a perfect example of the expectation value given by the Operators. Its implements are pivotal for physics, as it is important in spontaneous symmetry breaking.
There are many examples, including Gluon-Condensates that are responsible for Quantum Chromodynamics, which is itself a renormalization process of the electrostrong force, and may also provide hadrons with mass. In the standard model, the Higgs Field is accompanied by two charged and two neutral components. These two field components that are charged and one of the neutral are given by the Goldstone Bosons, which are Pseudo-Particles. Goldstone Bosons are massless bosons, which appear in spontaneous symmetry breaking, and are also predicted by like Condensate Fields. It appears that these particles are only massless if spontaneous breaking of symmetry is not broken. In other words, it is a very delicate process. Any slight change and they become to have mass.
They are very light particles, moving at very high speeds. The idea for these particles, was first hypothesized by Jeffrey Goldstone, and he postulated that there was [one] Goldstone Boson, to every broken symmetry to their component generators.
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking is found to be relevant to the energy being produced. In example, the theory shows that at high enough energies, about 15GeV, the strong force is unified with electromagnetic and weak forces. At these high energies, the coupling constant of QCD, is found to decrease to nearly zero at these energies. The phenomena is called ‘’Asymptotic Freedom.’’ It means that quarks act much like free particles in high-energy collisions inside of a Hadron. Then they are said to ‘’perturbate.’’
At low energies, the Coupling Constant becomes very high, and now perturbation is said to break down, and explains why quarks can couple into groups of two’s and three’s. The energy at low enough temperatures, find to be consequent to a phenomena of spontaneous symmetry breaking. The best example we have of this, is matter-antimatter production early on in the universe. There is about one antiparticle to every 108 photons in the universe.