# Scientific Notes

Here is a gallery of expressions and theories worked on in physics for simple veiwing. Use it if you wish for the work presented at sciforums.

Aether Theory - is the notion that fundamental matter, that is, all subatomic matter have a field of force that instructs them how to behave with other matter... creating coherency at this low level, must then inexorably reflect the importance of coherency between macroscopic objects... If it is a real field (and that is a big *if* because i am not convinced), i would, and have in some respect, interpret this force as the will of God. Some scientists believe Aether is needed. Other's ridicule the thought due to relativity.

Albert Einstein - Was a German-born theoretical physicist (March 14th 1879-1955), thought to be the best physicist that had ever lived. He is most associated with the mass-energy equivalence equation E=Mc^2, and for his special and general relativity papers. He was awarded with a Nobel Prize in 1921 for his work in 1905 on the 'Annus Mirabilis'. Some believe that Einstein should have received a lot more Nobel’s for his work; especially for the Relativity papers and 'the Brownian Movement.'

Anthropic Principle - This is the principle that states that our universe expanded so that we could exist.

Antimatter - Is this opposite of ordinary matter (the stuff we are made of). Antimatter was distributed in equal proportion when ordinary matter emerged from the distortions of spacetime. Antimatter, when comes into contact with ordinary matter annihilates each other with twice the magnitude of energy as high-frequency gamma rays (light).

Arrow of Time - These arrows that can arise in perception or in nature point to a directionality, which help us in understanding the path of time, which is, according to our observations and calculations, points forward.

Artificial Intelligence - is a theory stating that it is capable to create an independent consciousness within computers. This theory, as-yet cannot be denied, as it equally cannot be proven. Such a theory can only be answered through time... unless conspiracists are correct, and an artificial intelligence already exits, as portrayed in the 1990's film, 'The Matrix.'

Big Bang - The theory of the birth of our Universe. It states that a sudden explosion occurred and expanded outwards in a burst of energy and matter, 15 billion years ago.

Big Crunch - The theory that our universe might one day begin contracting and reducing in size.

Big Rip - The theory that our universe will one day suffer a massive tear in all matter.

Black Hole - This is a remnant of a star that has so much mass concentrated in it, it is able to stop light itself. A black hole will have infinite curvature at its centre called the singularity. It might also link one universe with another universe through wormholes located inside of it.

Binding Paradox - This highlights the strangeness of perception. It ask's why the mind can bind both the perceptions of time and space into a smooth continuous structure, instead of momentary flashes of awareness.

Bose-Einstein Statistics - Describes the quantum nature of photons as tended to fall into the same states. It helped with the creation of the laser.

Bradyon/Tardyon - A Bradyon is a particle that moves with a velocity which is always under the speed of light. Another name for this particle is a 'Tardyon.' This particle moves more in imaginary space (real time), than it does in real space. (imaginary time).

Cosmology - The study of our large universe.

Copenhagen Interpretation - an interpretation on quantum mechanics given by Niels Bohr.

Collapse of the Wave Function - A sudden change in state. Usually used in interpreting what would happen when a quantum system is being observed. Thus, whenever anything is observed, according to the Copenhagen interpretation, that system is reduced to a single probability.

Continuum - Is a dimension with infinite space. Our space and time are two aspects of one single continuum.

Chronon - Our universe began at the first chronon. It is an infinitesimally small period; it is the billionth of the billionth of the billionth of the billionth of the billionth part of one second.

Corporeal - An object with physical body structure.

CP Violation - This states that there can be a violation in the symmetry found in matter (such as an electron and it's antipartner, the positron). C stands for the (charge conjugate), and P stands for (parity).

Decoherence - a fantastic, though disturbing discovery made in 1996 by physicists that seems to prove that a mixed state object can settle into a single state due to its environment.

Density - Even a mass of an object has a lot of space between the atoms it is made of. The space measures how dense an object is. Our planet for instance, is about 96% space - so it is not very dense.

Dimension - A dimension is a realm of freedom. In our universe we have three spatial dimensions and one time dimension. They make up the vast space of the universe.

Dirac's Equation - It showed the existence of the antiparticle. His equation opened new doors into the laws of physics.

Exclusion Principle - Also known as Fermi-Dirac Statistics, it describes the tendency of fermion particles to exclude each other so that two electrons (for instance) cannot have the same spin.

Echo Wave - This is a quantum wave that travels backwards in time.

Electron - The electron is the smallest subatomic particle known, with a mass of about 938 MeV (mega-electro vaults). The electron which has a negative charge lives inside of atoms around the nuclei which have a positive charge.

E=Mc^2 - This is Einstien's mass-energy equivalence equation, developed for his relativity theories. E is for energy. M is for mass. C is for celeritas, and ^2 is squared.

Ekpyrotic Cosmological Theory - states that our universe has a siemese twin, that inexorably speeds away, and bounces back off each other, causing a Big Bang all over again.

EPR Paradox - Created by Einstein, Pololsky and Rosen, it deals with the measurement on one half of a system. The other half, even though it is no longer attached to the system, is instantly determined. Thus the measured part determines the unmeasured part.

Eukaryote - A mulitcellular organism.

Exclusion Principle - This principle was devised by Wolfgang Pauli - it states that all particles must cancel each other out, by having a unique position, spin, path ect. that is not shared by another particle inside of an atom.

First Instant - see 'Chronon'

Flat Spacetime - is a theory stating that the three dimensional coordinates of visible space, aren't curled and twisted into time, but rather seen as a flat, smooth scape, that extends into infinity. Thus, this is an anti-Einstinian concept, as states in his Relativistic Laws and imaginary principles, that space and time bend into each other, like a grand *Gordian’s knot.*

Gravity - is the weakest of all four fundamental forces, and the most elusive, as we have never detected its fundamental maker, the *graviton* - which is strange, i must admit... after all, the force of gravity, according to physics must be made up of such an elementary particle. Though, some scientists believe no such particle exists - but they are few in number...

Gravitational Waves - as common as they *should* be, according to the Big Bang Model, these waves have so far not been detected. Some scientists don't even believe they are as common as predicted, which would seem like the most logical explanation, for the time being anyhow...

Global Causal Violation - This is classed as a *pathology* in physics, and describes a path that moves through space, and turns around in time. Relativity explains such strange goings-on

Ground State - Is when an a quantum system uses up as little energy as possible. For instance, a lowest state of energy an electron can have has a spherical formation - whenever energy is added to an atom, the shape of the electron will change, and the atom will become into an excited state and inexorably quantum leap.

Higgs Boson - It is a hypothetical particle proposed by Peter Higgs. Being the only particle predicted by the standard model, and as yet has not been seen, the Higgs Boson is thought to provide all matter with mass, accompanied by an invisible force field. For such a reason, the particle itself has been dubbed as the *God Particle.*

Hubble Expansion - also known as Hubble red shift - Discovered by Edwin Hubble, measurements of objects in our universe seem to indicate that everything is receding from us, showing an expanding universe. We measure the expansion when objects that are moving away from us appear to be redder, and the closer an object is, the bluer it will appear. We know these effects to be true, because the same thing happens when the colour 'red' is radiated by an object showing it is in a strong gravitational field, and 'blue' when in a weak field. Measuring these 'Time Warps,' proved Einstien’s static universe as wrong, as he himself said, 'it was my biggest blunder.'

Hyperspace - This theory states that our universe was once a perfect 10 dimensional space. Then suddenly, the dimensions cracked; this caused our universe to expand, whilst the 6th dimension began to contract violently. If it is correct, it might explain big bang theory.

Imaginary Space - Imaginary space, is the same thing as real time. We move through the imaginary dimension of space at the speed of light.

Luxen - This is a particle that always moves with a velocity equalling that of light. Light moves at 186,000 miles per second.

Macroevent - The scale unto which we can observe things directly by the naked eye.

Microevent - This is the small world of electrons and photons and all other elementary particles.

Momentum - This is the measure of matter in motion. Thus, the momentum of a 'particle' is in fact the equivalence to an infinite collection of waves, we come to call, 'the wave function.' Offer Wave - This is a quantum wave that travels forward through time.

Oscillate - If something oscillates, it is said to move back and forth.

Panspermia Theory - This is a theory stating that life on earth originated from microbes, sent from deep space aboard a comet.

Paradox - This is a problematic situation. A paradox might consist of a situation that is contradictory with itself.

Parallel Universes - This is the theory that states that our universe is in fact one in an infinite amount of universes all superimposed upon each other.

Photon - A photon is a particle of light - it is the smallest particle of energy, with no mass, and emits an electromagnetic field. The light from the sun takes a little under 8. 3 minutes to reach us and thus travels at the fast velocity of 186,000 miles per hour. The Photon is an ethereal zero-time particle; this means it doesn't move through space, neither does it take any time to do anything. Therego, its birth and death are simultaneous.

Powers - If a calculation is 10x10x10x10, then it can be represented as 10^4, then that means 10 multiplied by 10 four times - powers can help us catalogue large numbers into easy notation.

Prokaryotes - This is a single-celled organism.

Psi - A mathematical symbol that is used to describe a quantum wave that travels forward in time.

Psi-Star - Is the mathematical symbol for a quantum wave that travels backwards in time.

Relativity Theory - There are the general and special relativity theories. The general theory deals with gravity as the presence of matter and the distortions of space and time. The special theory deals with the calculations one might envision in respect of another observer that is moving at a fixed velocity.

Schrödinger’s Cat - Erwin Schrödinger proposed this principle, to state the incompleteness of quantum physics. A cat is locked up in a chamber, with atoms that will or will not emit gas - suppose that the probability of the atoms being unstable is 50% - if no one looks in the box, is Schrödinger’s cat dead or alive?

Singularity - A negative point in space and time where all laws of quantum physics are meaningless, because all aspects take on infinite values. Standard Interpretation - see the Copenhagen Interpretation.

String Theory - States that fundamental particles are not 'point-like,' but rather they are little strings all vibrating with differential frequencies, existing as *higher objects,* in an eleven-dimensional space.

Superdimension- This is the human mind and consciousness. Somehow, the mind influences the material world, that whenever we come to measure something, we ultimately create that system, by giving it meaning, texture, colour, shape ect - and the information thus floods into our beings/consciousness. Superdimension can also mean that the human mind is a dimension of its own, threaded into the external world of reality.

Superposition - This is when two possibilities, or more, are superimposed upon each other.

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus - A human gene, thought to be responsible for the perception of time.

Tachyon - This hypothetical particle travels faster than light. It is made of a strange substance called 'imaginary matter,' and thus has 'timelike' qualities, meaning it can move backward and forward through the time dimension.

Thermodynamics - even though i don't mention the laws of thermodynamics with great detail, i shall nevertheless recite them for the reader. The first states that there is conservation in energy... thus, nothing can be removed, only transferred. The second law states that the flow of heat cannot spontaneously convert to one body to a warmer body. The third states that everything is moving, even at zero-temperature.

Twin Paradox - Einstein devised this paradox to show how time is not absolute. It describes a twin that leaves earth near the speed of light and returns after so many light years, only to find on his arrival that his twin has aged dramatically, whilst he has aged only a few minutes.

Quark - An elementary particle that makes up the nucleus of atoms. They in turn make up protons and neutrons which make up 99% of the entire atom

Quantum Cosmology - is the study of the universe in the atomic and subatomic scale during the first instants.

Quantum Leap - Is a discontinuous change from one state to another. A particle that quantum leaps, will move from one place to another without ever going in between, as if it vanishes of the spacetime map for a fraction.

Quantum Wave Function - It is a mathematical formula that predicts the likelihoods of an object in space.

Uncertainty Principle - A difficult principle to understand, brought about by Werner Heisenberg, that states that certain knowledge’s are at the expense of other knowledge’s, and shows that the world cannot be summed up entirely of cause and effect.

Wormhole - A topological opening in space and time, that can link to other times in this universe, whether that be in the future or in the past - and if theory is correct, it might even link up with other universes. Wormholes are predicted to exist inside of black holes. For a black hole to become traversable wormhole for objects moving at a speed slower than light, it requires matter with a negative energy... we call this exotic matter. It is needed to counteract the positive energy of gravity, which tends to 'bring everything together,' whereas negative matter will blow everything up.

Zeno-Effect - An atom, ripe to radiate energy, can be suspended in time through simple observation.