Is pure and innocent form of energy. It is also a form of eternal bliss and unadulterated call of reality that world is alive. Light can bee seen by most humans and is a wave propagating at frequencies of 4.3 x 10^14 Hz - 7.5 x 10^14 Hz (*)
And God Said...
In September 1997, physicists created matter out of pure light. This was the verification scientists needed to explain how all matter evolved.
What is a Luxen?
A Luxen is a particle that always moves with a velocity with that which is lightspeed (v=c). We have many Luxens in labs today. One that we all know of and see everyday is light. It permeates the sky and we often do not bother ourselves with them. But it is our source of life, and energy - it provides us with heat and light; and as it turns out, provided everything that is physical.
Lighten Up, You Miserable Git
Light is made up of photons. They are the smallest energy units known to us, and move with a velocity of 186,000 miles per sec or 299,792,458 m/s. A photon will travel 65.5 billion billion miles in one year! They are what are called zero-time particles. This means that the photon does not experience any time at all. And if it experiences no time, then the photon spends no 'time' in space either. This is hard to imagine... after all, doesn't the photon move through space? Doesn't a photon take time to get from A to B? Well, this all sounds correct from our point of view, but from a photons point of view it is very different. It is just another bizarre situation in relativity. The universe, when it expanded from its singular region in space and time, grew quite old before light emerged. In fact, something equivalent to thirty-two years had passed before light emerged. We believe this, because the universe began with a time-scale called the 'first chronon.'
You are Glu(on)
We are made up of many Luxens called gluons. In fact, 98.12% of our bodies are made up of gluon mass. The remaining 1.88% is made up of quarks and electrons, (of course, we are made up of other percentages and types of particles).
Does the photon have mass?
The short answer is no.
What? You want a long answer too? Fine. Some people find it difficult to comprehend a photon as being massless because it can be deflected by the gravity of, let us say a star. One way to explain this is by saying light couples to gravity, because light also generates curvature and curvature is the equivalence of gravity. However, there is too little amount of light to have any major gravitational effects in our universe, except for perhaps 32 years after big bang, when the universe was flooded in light particles. For those who like math, here are some more reasons why the photon does not have mass. Some people like to say that the photon has mass because the photon has energy E=hf, where (h) is 'Planck’s constant' and (f) is the frequency of the photon. Thus, they tend to assume that because it has energy (E) it must have mass (M) because of Einstien’s mass-energy equivalence equation E=Mc^2... They also say that the photon has momentum, and momentum is related to mass p = Mv where (v) is velocity and (p) is for momentum. Yet, you cannot justify it having mass using this argument. This is actually 'relativistic mass' - which is nothing but the measure of energy which will change with velocity. It isn't actually mass, even though mass and energy are related. In physics jargon, the mass of an object is called its 'invariant mass,' and the photon has no invariant mass. Now, a massless particle can have energy and it can have momentum, simply because mass is related to these through the equation:
E^2 = M^2c^4 + p^2c^2
Which is subsequently zero-mass for a photon because E = pc for massless radiation (remember, c means the speed of light). So yes, the photon has momenta and energy, and can deliver a punch out of it when it hits a surface, but it doesn't have mass.
Now... a strange situation can arise if light is trapped inside a container. If light is trapped inside of a box with mirrors inside of it, so that it cannot escape, (now the mirrors would need to be cold enough so that the mirrors do not absorb the light-energy), the total momentum is said to be zero, but the energy is not - thus, the light can contribute a very small amount of mass to the box! Now, one can say that the light in the box must have mass to even add any mass to begin with - but actually, it is more accurate to say it contributes to the mass - but do not use this as some kind of justification that light indeed has mass. That is simply not true. A photon can decrease the invariant mass value of E/c^2 each time a system emits a photon... likewise, a system can increase its invariant mass by a value of E/c^2, if it absorbs a photon particle.
You say Photon, I say, well, Photon
The photon is responsible for the 'electromagnetic force' - which was first predicted by physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1865 which was experimentally proven in 1888 by Heinrich Hertz in his detection of radio waves. Looking at the Feynman diagram shows a virtual photon exchange between a positron (antielectron) and an electron - thus it mediates the electromagnetic force, and comes in many different states; in this sense, light is electromagnetic radiation of absolutely any wavelength, such as radio waves, microwaves, ultraviolet rays, x-rays, gamma rays, infrared light waves and of course, visible light rays. The photon can be slowed down whenever, let's say it is absorbed by other mass or whenever it transfer’s energy and momentum which are both proportional to its frequency. The photon itself was originally called 'light quantum,' or 'das Lichtquant,' by Sir Albert Einstein. It originated from 'phos' in Greek for 'light'. Like all quanta, the particle of light has both a wave and particle description; more on wave-particle duality later. Einstien's theoretical work on the photon (1905 - 1917) helped with momentous advances in quantum theory; such as lasers and quantum field theory. The photon is probably [one] of the strangest particles in physics. The first reason is because it experiences zero dimensions. Because it is a zero-time particle, it spends absolutely no time at all to get from A to B. Now, to an observer, let's say, standing on a mountain, for light to reach his zone from the horizon, would take only a fraction of a second, but for a photon, or, from a photons point of view, it didn't even take a fraction of a second. It took no time at all. For this reason, the photon doesn't really exist... One might see this two ways. One way being that the photon is never really born in time, because it doesn't experience time - yet this must also mean it never dies. Another way being is that it is born, but this is simultaneous with its death. For these reasons, the photon seems ethereal, perhaps even 'potential', but essentially mystical and relatively ageless.
Light and the Bible
We are informed in the bible that Gods first element was in the form of light - and He saw that this light was good. In physics this was very good, because it set the stage for the evolution of matter - most of which would get to experience the dimensions of spacetime. It states that our universe, about 32 to 33 years after the 'Alpha Point', was nothing more than a hot sphere of light gas*. Then as everything progressed, the light changed into other particles, and thus came along the first protons and neutrons. Thus, according to the general view among scientists, all matter is in fact, a state of 'Trapped Light.' This light can be released through matter-antimatter collisions, releasing two deadly gamma rays.
* It was a young Indian man, by the name of Satyendra Nath Bose in the year of 1926, who set in motion the discovery that photon particles can be described as being a gas, due to Einstien’s contributions. This was proven empirically through Bose-Einstein Statistics. It showed that if a photon's environment where cooled to a low enough temperature, they would 'condense' into their lowest quantum state. This came to be known as the 'Bose-Einstein Condensation,' and was experimentally tested in 1955. This also led to the most important discovery of coherent fundamental states, and helped in the creation of quantum lasers.
Einstein often wondered what the world was like from the viewpoint of a photon... and using his imagination from a photons point of view opened up many secrets in the world of physics. One example was what would happen if he was traveling along through space at the speed of light - since no light could catch up to reflect off the mirror, would he still see his reflection? The answer one would think is no - but as he devised his relativity papers, it turned out that he actually would be able to see his own reflection.
What is E=Mc^2? It is an equation that represents the mass/energy equivalence principle. In this equation, energy could become mass and mass could become energy. One might even say this was the first proof of antimatter/matter relationships. The very ability for mass to change back into original energy, just like (E=M)c^2, had written all over it the bizarre behavior of antiparticle/particle coherence.
(E) is for energy. Energy is diffused matter. There is energy in every particle and subatomic particle in the universe. Every chock-a-block piece of matter has an energy. To release or gain this energy, a particle might absorb or radiate away energy. Either way, the particle will undergo a 'quantum jump' - a discontinuous change from one state to another. The energy of the universe actually comes to a 'whole' zero. All antienergy (-E) added with energy (E) comes to zero total.
(=) equals creates the equivalence between (E) energy and (M) is for mass. Mass is somehow the same thing as energy. Even though energy is much more erratic, mass is simply just a longer fluctuation in the 'zero-energy field' which will be explained more about later. The equivalence between mass and energy led the world into a new age of thinking, and revolutionized technology. It even led way to the atom bomb itself - thus, by splitting the atom, energy would be released. All the matter when counted comes to a big fat zero as well.
(c) is for (C)eleritas. Some descriptions write it as 'Sceleritas,' but this Latin translation for 'light' can also be written as, 'Celeritas'. Whenever you see the letter 'c' it represents the speed of light; which is of course 186,000 miles per second. When it is sitting beside another notation, the two answers multiply. Thus it is written as M x c, which basically means that mass is thus multiplied by the speed of light.
- pure and innocent light can cause skin cancer, when not handled with care, that is to totally avoid it because cancer can happen with the first ray of light or the zillionth. Of course this all comes into play from the fear of light, known as Photophobia.